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Full text of "ETOUSA Special Morale Services Guide"

UNCLASSIFIED 



ETOUSA : 
SPECIAL & MX) RALE 
SERVICES GUIDE 



— PUBLISHED BY 

SPECIAL SERVICE DIVISION, ETOUSA V 

C) i 



USA CGSC FT iEAVENWORTH KAN 

MAR 21972 

y> ACCESSION NO 

REGlSiR. ZZ. 

"""****•*•*-«•«««*«„, ■ 



NOTE ON NAMES 

The Special Service Division, European Theater 
of Operations is divided into Morale Services anc 
Special Services activities. In the War Depart- 
ment there is a Director of Mo/ale Services 
and a Director of Special Services. In the ETO 
the Chief of Special Service heads both. 

Morale Services Officers are variously called 
Orientation Officers, Education Officers, etc, 
Special Services Officers are referred to simply as 
Special Service Officers, Recreation Officers, 
Athletic Officers, Theatrical Officers, etc. So many 
designations, however, would be confusing <in this 
guide. 

In the following pages all Morale Services and 
Special Services Officers are variously called 
Special Service Officers— with one exception^ The 
term Orientation Officer is used throughout 
Chapter 3. The Orientation program is a function 
of the Special Service Division ETO but is a 
duty-time activity with the Orientation, Officer 
carried in regimental T/O's as Assistant S-3. 



ETOUSA 
SPECIAL & MORALE 
SERVICES GUIDE 



Published by 
SPECIAL SERVICE DIVISION, ETOUSA 

MAY, 1944 



CONTENTS 



Chapter 1 — Introduction ' ... 

„ 2 — Supplies ..: ... ... 

Morale Services : 
„ 3 — Orientation . 

4— News, " Stars and Stripes," " Yank " 
„ 5 — Radio ... . ... ... 

„ 6 — Research 

,, 7 — Education ... ... ... 

Special Services : 

„ - 8 — Athletics 

„ 9 — Cinema ... • 

10-^Music ;.. . ... . ... ■ - 

„ 11 — Soldier Shows ... 
„ 12— USO Shows ... 
„ 13 — Miscellaneous (Facilities).! . ... 



14 — Enlisted Men's Council 

15 — Special. Service on Wheels 

16 — Morale Factors ... 

17— The Special Service Officer as a Staff Officer 

18— Your Special Service ... ... 

19 — Points from Combat ... ... 

20— American Red Cross ... 
Improvisations and References 

Index ... , ... ... ••• ••• • • 



Chapter 1 

INTRODUCTION 

" First in importance is morale . . ." General George C. 
Marshall. 

Morale is a -function of command. As a matter of policy it 
begins at the top. As a matter of practice, it begins with the 
platoon commander. 

General Eisenhower has said' that the unit officer must not 
only be the leader, he must also be the parent of his men, 
though he may be the youngest of them. , 

First in importance is morale as a weapon of war. There- 
fore, the first responsibility, of every officer who commands 
men is the well-being, mental and spiritual as well as physical, 
of his men. : . 

This is a- responsibility that may not be delegated to the 
Special Service Officer. Nor may Special Service assume it. 

|§he Special Service Officer advises and assists the com- 
mander, and supplements the commander's basic program with 
activities that every normal man craves and must engage in 
if he is to do his part with the spirit that wins, whether it. is 
to lay concrete or fight. 

The unit commander is responsible for morale. The Special 
Service Officer serves morale. 

HOW MORALE IS SERVED 

The soldier coming out of combat is dirty. He is bone tired. 
His sheer weariness -makes him seem relaxed. But inside 
him, the hard bitterness of battle is like taut gut. The soldier 
may have seen his buddy killed, and the memory is stark 
within him. . t ' " 

What will unwind the tautness, relieve the bitterness inside 
this . man? 

- The soldier himself has given the answer, and it's "the same 
whether he's in a Pacific jungle or an Italian village: • 

He wants the mail from home; 

He wants the news— -Stars and Stripes and Yank ; 



3 



He wants cigarets, a chocolate bar ; 
He wants movies ; 

He wants an American radio program ; 

He wants a good story to read; 

He wants a deck of cards, a pair of dice ; 

He wants a bath, shave, clean clothes — if possible. 

There is nothing elaborate about these wants, but add them 
up, when they're satisfied, and they mean good morale. For, 
to a great extent, good morale is made up of a lot of little 
satisfactions. 

In a few days, the soldier, free from his foxhole and front 
line duties, will be ready for a GI show, for a sing-song. In 
a few days more, he'll feel the hankering to throw a ball, to 
bat some . . . or he may get interested in doing a little 
studying. 

Again, nothing elaborate — just simple satisfactions. ", But 
the experienced commander puts*a very high value on all of 
them. They are tools with which he brings the soldier back 
into shape. When he sees the soldier playing ball or joining 
in a sing-song or laughing heartily at a movie, the commander 
knows that his morale problem is under control. 

It is to the Special Service Officer that the commander tuyns 
for these tools, all except the mail and clothes. 

Napoleon evaluated MORALE 
as 3 to 1 over MATERIAL 
General Marshall evaluates MORALE 
as 5 to 1 over MATERIAL 

The social system doesn't exist that takes as good care of 
its civilians as does the United States Army of its soldiers. 

There may be few if any frills to the Army's care but the 
intrinsic quality of the care meets the highest standard of 
modern living. 

Food and clothing, medical and dental service, equipment, 
weapons, transportation are the best the world has yet seen. 

The soldier is stronger, healthier than he was as a civilian. 
He is more resourceful, quicker, surer of himself. He is adept 
with his weapons. These things the Army has done. 

But the Army does something more. 

With two main programs of Special Service (1) the morale 
program and (2) the recreational and athletic program, the 
Army builds in the soldier mental fitness to match physical 



4 



fitness, confidence in command, pride in service, and a sense 
of personal participation. 

THE MORALE PROGRAM 

" Only an informed America can be a strong America." 
This, is as true of the soldier as it is of the civilian back home. 
The Army knows it. 

With the morale program of Special Service, the Army : 

informs the soldier on the causes of this global war, shows 
him the reasons "why we fight" ; 

encourages him to discuss the issues so that out Of his own 
understanding he will become strong in his conviction that 
his cause is just and that primarily he is fighting for himself 
and his family. , 
With this program, the Army : 

keeps the soldier informed of the progress of the war— 
his. own and his allies' ; . 

brings him the news from home ; 

gives him his own daily newspaper, his own weekly 
magazine ; 

operates a radio network for him. 
With this program, the Army provides the soldier with 
almost unlimited opportunities for education (1) to help him 
increase his value as a soldier, (2) to help him increase his 
earning capacity as a civilian. 

THE SPECIAL SERVICES (Recreation and Athletic) PROGRAM 

General MacArthur has said that his men have three enemies 
to fight— the Jap, the weather, and homesickness. 

A famous British general has said that boredom can b£ 
more dangerous than the Germans. 

Every commanding officer knows what homesickness and 
boredom will do to the morale of his unit. 

And every commanding officer knows that next to letters 
from home the most effective cure for homesickness and bore- 
dom is the America movie. 

As a result, manufacturing facilities for both films and 
projection equipments have been and are taxed to the limit to 
meet the demands for movies from every theater of operations. 

In the. ETO, alone, with the recreation and athletic program 
of Special Service, the Army gives more than six thousand 
movie shows weekly in its camps, depots and stations, and this 
figure will be doubled. 



5 



With the recreational and athletic program, the / Army 
provides : , 

GI theatricals and music, 

USO shows, and concerts by professional soloists and 
orchestras, 

an athletic program that puts the emphasis on % mass 
participation. I. - • 

Thus the army knocks out homesickness and boredom— with 
activities that are fundamental in American life, sports and 
games, movies, live-show entertainment with the accent .on 
humor and song, and a full score of music. 

The soldier stays in camp for this program, not because he 
has to, but because it's good enough to keep him there. He 
has said so himself in a poll of soldier opinion. His complaint, 
if he makes one, is that he doesn't get enough. 

V.D. . 

Men who stay in camp don't get V.D. Homesickness, bore- 
dom, AWOL, V.D., they're birds of a feather, they go together. 
They add down. They total low morale. They breed care- 
lessness, indifference, even to health. ^ 

', Every commander fears them. The good commander will 
not tolerate them, will not rest until he is dead sure he has an 
off-duty program equal to the problem. 

If V.D. can be said to be a measure of morale, then Special- 
Service as a preventive is one of the best things that ever 
happened to the Army. There are instances of movies, alone, 
cutting the V.D. rate as much as fifty per cent in a camp. 
Reports of this kind to the ' Division in Washington have been 
too numerous to admit of coincidence. 

The two .programs of Special Service keep the soldier in 
camp. How effectively they do this depends upon the 
commanding officer himself. He appoints the Special Service 
Officer in his camp. He determines the amount of time that; 
Special Service Officer will have for the job. The better the 
officer ' appointed, the more time -allowed him, the more 
effective will be the programs-. General Marshall has rated 
morale as five to one over material. In some instances, he 
has rated it as high as ten to one. The Special Service 
Officer who may ask himself just how vital, just how- really 
important his contribution is to the winning of the war, will 
find the answer in that evaluation. 



6 



THE COMMANDER, THE SPECIAL SERVICE OFFICER, 
THE CHAPLAIN 

They are a trinity working for good morale. Together, they 
mould the fighting man. -They give him the " know-how," the 
guts, the buoyant spirit, and the faith to win. 

On the Commander rests the ultimate responsibility. He is 
the leader. Pre-eminent among all morale factors is leader- 
ship. Nothing can take the place of strong and sound leader- 
ship. . . " <. 

The Commander dominates the twenty-four hours of the 
soldier's day. 

The Special Service Officer assists him mostly during the 
off-duty hours. 

The Chaplain carries out his historic mission. The import- 
ance of that mission is known to every officer and. enlisted 
man, personally. There are no atheists before going into 
battle . . . nor after. 

In the following pages, the two main programs of Special 
Service are broken down for working reference. The material 
is such that the Special Service Officer can discuss it with his 
Commander and plan his programs with assurance of success. 

Chapter 2 
SUPPLIES 

The most valuable of all Special Service supplies is the pool 
of talent that is found in the unit, itself. 

Every unit has it Bob Hope, its Lou Costello, its Barrymore. 
Every unit has its natural singers, its sports enthusiasts. There 
is always someone who can write, someone else who can teach 
mathematics, history, geography, a language. Given the oppor- 
tunity and the encouragement, these soldiers will produce their 
own GI shows, their own music program, their own news", 
athletic, orientation, and educational programs, and, if 
necessary they'll do it without . supplies. 

Grease paint and footlights help but they don't make the 
actor and the comic. The singer has the best of all musical 
instruments in his throat.® The writer can turn reporter; he 
can produce theatrical skits. The outdoor man will figure a 
way to play without an "A" kit. 

This is not written to minimize ( the need and the value of,. 
Special Service supplies Nothing, for instance, will take the 



7 



place of movies and radio. There is no Special Service supply 
that is not important. 

But this is written "to emphasize two facts : (a') lack of 
supplies is not a reason to hold up a Special Service program ; 
(b) only by first organizing the soldier talent in his unit can 
the Special Service Officer have a successful program and 
obtain maximum participation in it. 

Now, about getting supplies. All supplies are hard to get. 
But Special Service supplies are a little harder to get than 
others.- Bullets come first . . . and brass for shells is more 
important than brass for band instruments. Nonetheless, there 
is a growing appreciation through all echelons of the need 
for Special Service supplies. There is definite improvement 
in the flow of certain supplies. There is more proportionately 
of all supplies. 

Periodically, the Supply Branch of the Special Service 
Division, ETO, publishes a supply memo. The memo gives 
current information on supplies in the theater and any changes 
in their bases of issue. It is distributed through technical 
(Special Service) channels. It can be obtained through those 
channels. : Supply memo. No. 6 is reproduced on page 56 of 
this guide. : 

Chapter 3 — Morale Services 
ORIENTATION 

The mission of the Army is to destroy the enemy. The 
mission of the Orientation Officer is to help his commanding 
officer in this task. 

Everything he can do to help his commanding officer prepare 
the mind of the American soidier for the moment when he 
meets the enemy in combat falls within the province of the 
Orientation Officer. He supplements the soldier's regular 
training with f information about ,' the enemy, ■ his methods, 
weapons, background and training. He brings io his unit the 
facts about the course of the war, so that each soldier knows 
his own place in the broad picture. He provides such infor- 
mation about the causes of the war as to make it clear why 
the American citizen finds himself ^n uniform, far away from 
home, and in an environment which is often dangerous and 
uncomfortable. 

Orientation isn't a good soldier-word. Neither is morale. 
Whatever the name, however, the simple fact is that if a. man 



8 



knows why he is fighting, what kind of enemy he is fighting, 
and what he as a soldier must do to knock the enemy out, he is 
certain to be a more effective member of a winning team. All 
this lies within the Orientation Officer's bailiwick. 

Orientation, therefore, is not a vague or academic thing. It 
is a weapon. It is a weapon a man, can't lose as he might a 
rifle, or throw away as he might a gas mask, or forget as he 
might some detail of training doctrine. It is something he has 
with him before, -during and after battle. It is something that 
enables him to endure the boredom of waiting for the battle to 
be joined. It is something that sustains him in the midst of 
battle when everything seems hopeless and his impulse is to 
flee in fright. It is something that helps make him, once the 
battle has been won, an intelligent member of a post-war 
society dedicated to enduring peace. 

The materials of orientation are provided by the Orientation 
Branch of the Special Service Division, ETO, supplemented by 
such publications as the unit receives direct from the 
War Department in Washington, plus materials which the 
Orientation Officer, through his own ingenuity, is able to 
procure within his unit,- such as the S-2 or any other sources 
available to him. These materials include (a) Army Talks, 
(b) The Warweek Supplement with Stars and Stripes, -(c) 
special orientation programs on the American Forces Network, 
■(d) special orientation features in Yank, (e) Orientation kits 
from the United States, (f) Newsmaps from the United States. 

Each week's Army Talks is published in illustrated, popular 
form as the featured story in Warweek. This enables the 
soldier to read up on the subject before the Army Talks 
hour, and to take an intelligent part in the discussion. 
, American Forces Network also synchronize their programs 
to cover the same material at the same time. 

These will come: to him regularly under normal conditions. 
They enable the Orientation Officer to carry out an interesting 
orientation program with combat significance. This program 
seasons the soldier's regular training diet. It makes the 
reasons for his training known to him. It keeps him well in- 
formed, gives him a. sense of personal participation. It does 
this by training time discussion groups, by off-duty readi^ 
and listening, by posters,, movies and other visual devices. 

In combat, orientation takes on greater importance than- 
ever. In combat, the soldier, cut off in some measure from 
normal sources of Information, is hungriest for news. He wants 



9 



to know where he is and why he is there. He wants to know 
what is going on around him. He wants to know how the parti- 
cular action in which he finds himself pertains to the war in his 
theater. He is interested in how the- war in his theater relates 
to the war in the rest of the world. It is then that the in- 
genuity of the Orientation Officer is most heavily taxied. It is 
then that he works under the least ideal conditions. It is then 
that the organization he has built up .m his unit is most 
severely tested. 

Under combat conditions, the Orientation Officer must get 
from S-l, S-2, S-3, and S-4 the information the -troops should 
have, to fight their best. The Orientation Officer handles this 
information so that it is given to the troops not as orders— but 
as information which explains the orders they must obey. The 
Orientation Officer imparts this information to the platoon and 
company commanders. How well these officers succeed in 
passing this information -to their men depends in large measure 
on how well the Orientation Officer has done his job in 
training. 

Company and platoon officers who understand orientation 
techniques, who have gained practice through the regular 
Army Talks program, and who have developed skill in digest- 
ing data and expressing it in its most understandable form, 
will do the best orientation job in combat. It is towards this 
goal— informing the man in the Joxhole why he is there and 
what it is all about— that .the program is 'largely aimed. 

Combat orientation plays an exceptionally important part in 
replacement depots and among men awaiting action and not 
aware of when they will be committed. It is also needed by ser- 
vice troops who may never see the enemy, but on whose zeal 
and efforts the fate of the combat soldier rests. And when troops 
leave the field and return to the rest areas for the between- 
battle interlude, the meaning of * the war, expressed in the 
normal channels such as Army Talks and the agencies^ listed 
above, can best do their work again. • ; 

If combat orientation succeeds in its mission, the war will 
be won that much sooner, with so many fewer, dead. If it 
succeeds, the soldier will be so much better able to assume his 
ro^e in constructing the post-war world. When that time 
comes the orientation program will change its language from 
that of total war to that of total peace. 

But until the enemy surrenders ilnconditionally, orientation 
remains a weapon of war. 



10 



(Chapter 4— Morale Services 

NEWS, STARS AND STRIPES, AND YANK 

The American fighting man in combat is news hungry. He 
wants -news almost as much as he wants mail; news of the 
world; news from home, news of other fronts, news about his 
own activities. 

Commanding officers want their men to have the hews. 
And so the foxhole news bulletin has made its appearance on 
all fighting "fronts. This is an improvised news service in 
which the Special Service Officer obtains his news from the 
radio, and relays it in the form of a mimeographed sheet to the 
men up front. Mimeographing facilities aren't always avail- 
able but the news can still be typed or even hand written. 
The main thing is to get these news-sheets up to the front 
lines, twenty or a hundred of them. They'll, be passed from 
hand to hand. Even tactical radios are sometimes used to 
pick up news broadcasts so that the fighting men can be 
informed. ' - 

In this theater, of course, the Army has a regular newspaper 
—its own newspaper, TJie Stars and Stripes. AH Special 
Service. Officers cooperate in speeding its distribution to the 
men in the front lines. ' 

', This war's Stars and Stripes began operation as a weekly 
in April 1942. It soon became a. daily; Yank was added to its 
distribution by delivering it as a weekly supplement. In any 
continental operation Stars and Stripes and Yank will be de- - 
livered to U.S. Armed Forces. 

AH soldiers in the ETO are familiar with the Stars and 
Stripes, so no long description is necessary here. A few details 
on specific procedure are given for your information. 

How does an individual soldier get Stars and Stripes, (assum- 
ing a non-combat situation). 

When a new unit arrives in the theater a Stars and Stripes 
representative will soon appear and tell how to subscribe to 
Stars arid- Stripes. . He rnay do this at a company formation 
or at mess. He will book individual subscriptions for the men 
who want to subscribe. He will arrange with company head- 
quarters to take the subscription price from the subscriber's' 
pay at the pay table. He will* collect the subscriptions on his 
next visit. He will give a receipt and will check to see that 
the .papers are delivered. 



11 



Certain organizations, like replacement depots, are more con- 
veniently handled on a cash rather than a subscription basis. 
In these cases a collection box is placed next to a pile of Stars- 
and Stripes at a spot that men visit daily, usually the mess 
hall. The men pick up the papers and drop the money in 
the box. 

The Stars and Stripes maintains at Hq ETO several feature 
activities that are explained below: 

1. A college registration service. This is to help bring 
together college men serving in the ETO. All college men are 
invited to send in at any time their name, rank, college, year, 
unit, and APO. By means of the lists thus obtained various 
college reunions are held from time to time. A man wanting 
to know the names of ETO soldiers registered as from his 
college and class can obtain a mimeograph list by writing to 
Stars and Stripes, Special Service Division, Hq, ETO, APO 887. 
A like service applies to college fraternities. 

2. Help Wanted Department. Through this department 
problems brought to its attention are directed through the 
proper channels or over and around blocks - which sometimes 
develop. All, kinds of individual pfbblems have been taken 
up by Help Wanted, from -assisting men to become citizens to 
purchasing items for men who can not procure them near their 
own posts. Any soldier may write to Help Wanted, Stars and 
Stripes, and will get a prompt reply. 

3. War Orphan Program. Under this plan a unit, a group 
of soldiers, or an individual contributing £100 is entitled to 
sponsor a British orphan for a period of five years. Here is 
what Stars and Stripes tells soldiers who want to help an 
orphan : 

'"' Call a meeting of your group, whatever size it may be, get 
pledges from the members, collect, and mail a check or money 
order to : The Stars and Stripes, War Orphan Fund, Printing 
House Square, London, E.C.3./ 

" To provide extra care for a war-orphaned youngster over 
and above, that afforded by the regular agencies, -requires £20 
a year per child. The Stars and Stripes Fund figures on pro- 
viding those little extras that make life really worth living 
over a period of five years. So the minimum amount needed 
is £100 per child. a 

" That amount may be paid in within a year. Pay it all at 
once and you can pick the color of hair and eyes and the sex 

12 



and type of youngster you and your unit want to care for. 
Stars and Stripes will provide a picture of the youngster and 
regular reports on progress. 

"If you can't subscribe the full amount, send in what you 
can. It will be placed with other fractional contributions 
towards caring for a child." 

YANK 

Yank is the • soldier's own weekly magazine. It is written 
by GI's for GI's. Its articles, its comic drawings, its illustra- 
tions, its letters page, are famous wherever American soldiers 
are found. Though similar in format and containing the most 
valuable of the features of the New York edition, the ETO 
edition is published in this theater with its own distinctive 
ETO contents. Yank's distribution is handled for efficiency 
along with Stars and Stripes, but the two publications are 
separately staffed and edited. Yank, The Stars and Stripes, 
and the American Forces Network co-operate in supplying 
material valuable to the orientation program. Yank's articles 
by its frontline enlisted writers, illustrated with photographs 
by its own soldier cameramen from all theaters of operation, 
are valuable in keeping the soldier informed on the fighting 
conditions that American soldiers are meeting all over the 
world. , 

*> Contributions from enlisted men to Yank, both factual 
reporting and Mail Call letters, are welcomed. These may 
be mailed direct to Yank without going through command 
channels. Yank's address for. mailing is Yank, APO, 887, 
U.S. Army. 

COMBAT 

In combat areas Stars and Stripes, and Yank will always be 
issued free at the rate of one copy for five men. 



r Chapter 5— Morale Services 
RADIO 

The American Forces Network (AFN) supplies the United 
States Army and Navy in ETO with the kind of broadcasts 
they get back home. The pick of all the programs that are 
popular at home are recorded there and are sent to the ETO 
to be broadcast over the AFN. In addition AFN broadcasts 



13 



GI shows, popular recorded music, recorded shows, informa- 
tion features, and, of course, the news. . 

As a unit Special Service Officer you have no responsibilities 
in the running of AFN. Your job is to make use of it. " 

The AFN broadcasts are of particular use in orientation 
programs. The latest news is needed for orientation ; but 
besides the news there is a weekly program correlated with 
Army Talks and with the Warweek feature of Stars arid 
Stripes. Foreign language lessons are broadcast for the 
benefit" of those soldiers who wish to improve their knowledge 
of those languages. 

You can do several other useful things about the AFN. You 
can, for instance, and should, distribute the" radios available 
to your unit so as to provide maximum reception. Even after 
this is done periodic checks are needed to see that each radio 
serves as many men as possible. All too often, a radio re- 
ceiver will come to rest in a location where only one or two 
individuals can use it. Special Service radios that find their 
way into private billets should not be allowed to stay there. 

Then, too, you can make surveys as to which programs are 
best liked by the men and send the results to AFN. 
" .Soldiers often invent various ingenious methods for more 
widely diffusing the service of a particular" radio receiver. 
Short descriptions of such improvisations sent to AFN will be 
useful to other unit Special Service Officers. If you send 
them in they will be published in Reecap, the Special Service 
ETO house organ. 

AFN programs are published in Stars and Stripes. Extra 
programs for posting on bulletin boards can be obtained direct 
from American Forces Network, Special Service Division, Hq^ 
ETO, APO 887. 

AFN will put your unit show on the air if it's good enter- 
tainment. If you feel ,lt- meets the standard of other'* unit 
shows that are broadcast, write to AFN. 

On the Continent news broadcasts can_be taken down and 
mimeographed for distribution right up to the "front line. 



Chapter 6— Morale Services 
1 RESEARCH BRANCH 
See page 142 which gives the ETO policy on use of this 
service.. Research Branch is now part of Special Service 
Division, ETO. See also Chapter 16 and material beginning- 
on page 72. 

14 



Chapter- 7— Morale Services 
EDUCATION 

When the soldier is off duty he starts to look for something 
to do— unless his duty has been so strenuous that he has to 
go right to sleep. 

He may go to the movies if they are available. He may 
play baseball, or get in a poker game, or read a book, or go 
to town. Or he may, in some cases, feel he'd like to learn 
more about some subject he is interested in. He may in fact 
want to study. * 

The soldier's desire for off-duty education may be based, on 
a wish to improve his military knowledge or his civilian 
opportunities after the war. Or it may be based simply on 
the fact he likes to learn things. * 

The : Special Service Officer has the job of seeing that off- 
duty education is available to those soldiers who want it. He 
has the job of setting up and carrying through a successful 
off-duty education program. . 

To do this the Special Service Officer has at his call con- 
siderable resources. ' 

There is, to start with, the ETO Branch of the Armed 
Forces Institute (USAFI). USAFI provides the following : 

1. . Correspondence courses completely processed in the 
ETO. : 

- \2. Correspondence courses offered by colleges and univer- 
sities in the. United States processed by mail with these 
institutions. -1 

3. Self -teaching materials. . 

4. Materials and text books for group instruction. 
Direct communication with ETO Branch, -USAFI, APO 871, 

is authorized. Catalogs, and detailed information can be 
obtained from USAFI as to what materials are available. The 
courses cover a wide range of subjects from shorthand to 
diesel engines. 

There is- a language study program. Soldiers can study a 
foreign language by means of: 

1. Records and phonograph equipment. 

2. Civilian instructors for group study. 

3. Civilian instructors (in certain cases) for individual 
study. 

See directives in the back of this guide for details. • 



15 



A program. of voluntary clerical training in off-duty time 
is authorized. Text books are provided by USAFI. Here 
again for details see directives in the back of this guide. 

One of the most interesting educational opportunities, avail- 
able to both officers and men in the UK, is the program of 
short courses at British universities. Twenty-five universities 
offer these courses to U.S. military personnel entitled to leave 
or furlough: Application is made direct to the Chief of Special 
Service indorsed by the officer authorized to grant leave or 
furlough. The directive on the subject is reproduced in the 
back of this guide. 

Library books can be requisitioned through regular channels. 
They are assembled in kits, known as L kits, described in the 
list of supplies in the back of this guide. 

The Chief of _ Special Service, Hq ETOUSA, APO 887, 
conducts each week a course for Education and Orientation 
Officers and Assistants" (NCO's). Quotas for attendance have 
been authorized for Air Forces, Field Forces, and SOS. 
Training in both: Army Education and Army Orientation, is 
given. Consult Hq. of your higher echelon about the quota 
allotted to you, and a copy of the appropriate directive at the 
back of this guide. 

All the above resources are dependent for their successful 
use . on you as the Special Service Officer. Your initiative' is 
needed. Unless your program makes the information regard- 
ing correspondence courses available to. the men ; unless you 
take an interest in seeing that group classes are properly 
organized and supplied ; unless you arrange for necessary 
instructors, for the orienting of group class leaders,, for the 
places to hold the classes ; unless you do all these things the 
unit education program will not be as good as it should be. 

You have another resource. Although yours is an off-duty 
time program, consider for a moment what the Army does 
in its duty-time training. The Army's theory and practice of 
duty-time education is stated with clarity in field manuals and 
training directives. The Army method of teaching is standard 
for the whole Army* It is non-conflicting throughout all arms 
and services. It works. It must work, for the Army is one 
of the greatest educational institutions in the world.' 

The major, job prior to actual combat of most company 
grade, officers is teaching. Seven million men have come into 
the Army. : Seven million men have been, and are being taught 



16 



to do Army jobs. The huge job has been done successfully 
because the Army system is clear and definite. 

The Army call its teaching training and.it calls its teachers 
instructors. Here is the mechanism of instruction the Army 
uses. It consists of : 

Preparation by the instructor, 

Explanation, 

Demonstration, 

Application, 

Examination, 

Discussion. 

These six steps in the order given can be applied to any 
teaching problems. The technique can be varied by omitting 
some of the steps. 

' In all group instruction it should be remembered that bore- 
dom is fatal Beware of boredom. Two factors will prevent 
it : '. interest and participation by the student. Make the 
classes interesting— whatever the subject. See that each 
student -has a chance for active participation. Then your off- 
duty education program,, once started, will not just die 
gradually away but will grow and flourish. 



Chapter 8 — -Special Services 
ATHLETICS 

If you have never seen soldiers playing volleyball without 
a volleyball and without a net, you haven't seen how far im- 
provisation can go in athletics. 

A usable volleyball can be made from salvage material (rags, 
pieces of leather, rubber, etc.) A net can be simulated 'by a 
rope. ■ 

Athletic equipment is not as plentiful in the ETO as it was 
back in the States. The unit's athletic equipment, therefore, 
must be properly cared for. That doesn't mean you should 
keep it locked up in .a supply iroom for fear you won't get any 
more. ¥se your equipment. Use it continually. But keep it 
in repair and don't let it get lost. 

Athletics lhas two very different meanings to different com- 
manding officers. Be sure you, as; a Special Service Officer, are 
definite in your own mind as to which meaning should be 
emphasized. 



17 



One form of athletics is based on this idea: If our Division 
has the best softball team in -the army it wili give the men of 
the Division something very definite to be proud of. 

Acting on this idea you can have a very fine softball team. It 
will reflect credit on the division, and on the Athletic Officers, 
but it accounts for the actual participation in softball of only 
a very few men — the few topnotch softball players in the divi- 
sion. Large spectator interest adds to its. value.- But the aver- 
age soldier never gets any physical value from such a program. 

The soldiers who need physical; development least— the 
expert players — get the most of it. 

The soldiers who need physical development most get none. 

The other form of athletics is based on this idea: If . every 
soldier in the Division takes part in seme form of .athletics*, 
the physical fitness of the Division will be greatly increased. 
All soldiers will be able to benefit. 

FM 21-5 has this paragraph. 

"In all physical training ... and athletics the emphasis must 
be placed on the physical development of all .the individuals 
of the unit. Concentration on the training of a few indivi- 
duals, in the effort to develop a winning team, inevitably leads 
to the neglect of the physical training of the majority. Over- 
emphasis of the importance of a team will frequently result' 
in neglect of the military training of the individuals compos- 
ing the team.". 

In the ETO the two opposing ideas of athletics are com- 
bined in ah intra-unit competitive program. You. should set 
up a variety of sports activities:' These should include all 
personnel of a unit. You do this by having squads play 
against squads, huts against huts, sections against ' sections. 
From such small groups a team can eventually be selected to 
represent units. You then progress with these teams from 
intra-unit to . inter-unit competition. _ • .. . 

A good" method is to make round-robin schedules whereby 
each individual or team meets each other individual or team. 
The winner of a round-robin schedule is determined on. a per- 
centage basis. See page 101 for scheduling procedures. " 

Elimination tournaments are often used instead of the 
round-robin system. These are not advisable. Participants are 
dropped out in the first or second instance of losing. Elimination 
tournaments .don't keep enough men active in the - athletic 



18 



program. They slant your program too much towards the 
few-best-players idea. ^ - 

There is yet a third commanding officer's approach to 
athletics. It is, this: Athletics and physical training should 
develop the soldiers physically for the specific needs of combat. 

instead of having the usual stereotyped calisthenics in the 
morning, use exercises that count in battle. This idea 
immediately puts the athletics and' physical training program 
under the watchful eye of G-3 or S-3. Athletics becomes a 
pact of the training program and rightly. Does this relieve 
the Special Service Officer of responsibility for athletics? It 
does not. WD Circular No. 287, 8 Nov., 1943, lists among 
the duties of the Athletic and Recreation Officer the following:. 
; "2 (a) to maintain liaison with other staff . officers on matters 
pertaining to physical fitness. \ 

(b) to assist in the proper development and execution of 
a unit physical fitness program." 

A Training Circular has been issjued for your use on such a 
physical fitness training program. It gives specific illustrations 
and examples, with diagrams. It is called TC No. 8.7, WD, 17 
Nov. lt>42. A memorandum based on this circular, is repro- 
duced -beginning on page, 86 of this guide. 

To summarize : there are three kinds of approach to an 
athletic program: 

a. The star team idea. 

b. The mass participation idea. 

c. A sensible combination of a and b by intra-unit com- 
petitions. . 

There are two approaches to a physical training program: 

a. Old type calisthenics. , 

b. Combat physical training. 

Inter-allied sports are not best handled, usually, by com- 
petition between American teams and Allied teams. These 
contests generally do not promote cordial relations. But 
mixed British-American - teams are very valuable for Anglo- 
American- relations. In other words, a team made up of 
American and British players, each teaching the other "how 
to play the game, promotes good relations and should be 
used rather than playing an American team against a British 
team. ■ * ^ ■ . •. - 

Inter-allied boxing competition is authorized between units 
of the U.S. and British Forces, but the sanction for such a 



19 



program will be obtained first from the Chief of Special 
Service, ETO. 

' POINTERS: Keep some athletic equipment available to the 
men at all times. A few minutes tossing a baseball around 
relaxes tension — if they can get hold of a baseball quickly 
during short off-duty periods. 

Fit yojur physical training program to the expected combat 
duties of the men. In an infantry outfit the men probably 
have solid legs and steady feet, but the average f ootsoldier 
doesn't carry" much shoulder brawn. Yet he may have to lug 
ashore oh invasion a fifty-one pound machine gun tripod in 
addition to his sixty pound pack. If yours is an infantry 
outfit you should read the article called "Building Brawn," 
by L»t. Avery Ashwood, in the Infantry Journal for August 
1943. Someone in your Division has a file of Infantry Journals 
if you haven't that particular number. The following three 
paragraphs are quoted from it as being valuable to the thinking 
of Athletic* Officers of all branches: x 

"First," writes Lt. Ashwood, "I would never let a man fail 
on the obstacle cqurse — if I had to station two men at each 
obstacle to help him over or across by giving him a boost. The 
spirit of soldierly co-operation must be emphasized as much 
in training as later in battle. For one of the greatest enemies 
of morale is the sense of personal frustration. No soldier 
should feel 'I can't make it,' and have that feeling emphasized 
by the amazing fact that seemingly nobody actually cares a 
damn whether he 'makes it' or not." 

"Moreover, I would estimate jump-up- johnny calisthenics 
and obstacle courses at their true value. Those who can do 
them with ease don't need them. The men who can'i do them 
are not benefited. To take the place of calisthenics and 
obstacle courses I offer the thought that every man ought to 
work on the cargo net, wearing full pack to include his 
personal weapon, ammunition, two-blanket roll, gas mask, full 
web equipment, rations, f.ull canteen, plus a fifty-pound 
infantry load made up from any infantry squad weapon." 

"I would always use natural cross-country hazards, rain or 
shine, instead of artificial, ones. I would stress slowness rather 
than speed, in order to develop the resistor muscles. And I 
wculd try especially to develop the upper arm and shoulder 
muscles of every soldier." 



20 



"There is a serious battle fallacy still held by some infantry 
commanders that their weapons carriers are going to carry 
the various infantry gun squads right to their combat positions 
in the battle zone— dump them with dispatch right on the spot. 
The truth of the matter is that in Tunisia and on Attu such 
roads as existed were used by all sorts of troops except 
infantry. As a result the soldier who 1 fights on his feet some- 
times had to hand-carry the supplies, weapons, and 
ammunition 'that would sustain him'for one day. for a distance 
of 5 thirty-five miles before he finally got into his position, 
ready to fight." 

While the above quotations apply specifically to infantry 
they contain a basic philosophy that is applicable to the, 
physical training of all branches. 

For exercises to develop combat-needed muscles use (not 
dumb bells or gym apparatus) but the boxes, weapons, crates, 
loads, that your men are going to have to work with and 
manhandle. Even "chair-borne" troops can benefit by lifting 
exercises, using typewriter boxes filled with sand or perhaps 
with training manuals and army regulations. 

If the athletic officer is smart u 
Every soldier will take part. ' 

Chapter 9 — Special Services 

CINEMA. 

THEY ALL WANT MOVIES. 

EVEN GENERALS WANT MOVIES. 

Movies are the backbone of the Army's entertainment 
program. , , , 

The Army officially recognized the morale value of movie 
entertainment way back in January 1921, when it organized 
the U.S. Army Motion Picture Service. 

The Army pioneered the " talkie " in its theaters, operated 
the first open-air movie theater. The Army is Hollywood's 
biggest single customer. It operates the largest chain of 
motion picture houses in the world 

Movies are morale ammunition. 

How thoroughly the Army knows this is proved by the fact 
that the first task force to leave the United Staites in this war 
carried movie projectors and films with it. 



21 



To-day, the Army's overseas motion picture service " is 
showing movies wherever American soldiers are fighting or 
preparing to fight. . \ 

THE OVERSEAS PROGRAM 

Almost immediately after Pearl Harbor the American 
motion picture industry made its now famous film-gift to 
the Army. -•■ ■ " : ' "■ 

The gift makes available, without cost, 16mm prints of the 
best pictures produced by ,the Industry for showing to 
uniformed personnel overseas-. The prints are released to 
the Army coincident with the first-run commercial releases, in 
some cases, sooner. A selected number of Hollywood's top 
productions have their world-premiere , in Army camps and 
stations overseas. 

The conditions made by the Industry and agreed to by the 
War Department are (1) that the gift-films will be shown only 
to. /uniformed personnel overseas, (2) that they will .be shown 
under the auspices of the Army, (3) that they will not be 
shown within two miles of a commercial cinema -(waived in 
the ETO), and (4) that ultimately the films will be returned 
to the Industry^ : . ■ 

To administer the gift, the Army organized the Overseas 
Motion Picture Service with a main film-exchange in New 
York -City, and overseas exchanges so located as most 
efficiently to serve in the different theaters of operations. 

In the ETO the film exchange is a function of the Cinema 
Branch of the Spe'cial Service Division. 

{ ..; MOVIES, UNLIMITED? ' 

Unfortunately, movies are not unlimited. 

There is a limit to the pictures Hollywood can produce, 
especially the good pictures. . 

There is a limit to the raw stock for printing. There is a 
limit to the printing capacity. s ; 

There is a limit to the capacity of projector manufacturers 
and an even shorter limit to the supply of spare parts 

It is well to face the facts frankly. There are not enough 
good pictures made nor enough prints of them printed, nor 
enough projectors built to provide a first-rate and different 
picture every night in the week for all pur forces overseas. 

Prodigality isn't the answer for an adequate cinema service 
in a camp or on a station. Efficiency is. 



22 



THE CINEMA SERVICE, ETO 

There are two services provided in the ETO: 

1. 35mm static service— >f or large camps and stations, which 
may be characterized as permanent, and for large convalescent 
hospitaJs.' 

2. t ,16mm service, static or mobile, for all other locations. 
35mm Service. This service is supplementary to the 16mm 

program. It is provided, as stated above, where there are 
comparatively large concentrations of troops at a permanent 
location. In addition there must be a suitable structure for 
the service. ~ 

A large concentration of troops is twenty-five hundred or 
more. A permanent location is one which it is reasonable to 
assume will be used for the duration. A suitable structure is 
a large gym or a thirty-five foot Nissen type hut. The seating 
capacity should be from five hundred (Up; the closer to a 
thousand the more suitable. The level height from ceiling to 
floor should be sixteen feet or more to allow for an adequate 
screen. . 

Except in the extremely rare cases where a cinema theater- 
is already at the location a fire-proof projection booth must 
be built on to one end of the selected structure. 35mm .film is 
highly inflammable, will burn like gunpowder. 16mm is non- 
inflammable. Plains for the required fire-proof projection 
booth are obtained from the Cinema Branch. Materials are 
supplied by the British, and in some cases the labor. More 
often the camp or station must supply the labor. 

The Cinema Branch provides the dual-projectors, baffle and 
screen, and the services of skilled installation engineers. 

The Cinema Branch arranges through reciprocal lend-lease 
for the regular supply of 35mm films. Actual booking of the 
films is done by the Special Service Officer of the using camp 
or station. - v 

The complete procedure for the securing and operation of 
the 35mm service is obtained from the Cinema Branch. 

16mm Service. Tliis is the main service for the overseas 
forces. "A few units arrive in the ETO with "their own 
projectors." Most don't, but most now in the theater have' 
been supplied. Those without projectors are served by the 
mobile cinema units of the Special Service, Companies. The 
full service of these jCompanies is given in chapter 15 of 
this guide. 

23 



The basis of projector supply is dependent upon allocations 
by the War Department of equipments to the ETO. The ideal 
basis would be one projector to 1,500 soldiers. 

16mm Film Programs. Everyone wants only the newest 
and the best pictures ! The fact is the Army gets the newest 
and the best pictures. But the Army can't show them to every 
soldier at once. Not even the Motion Picture Industry wifii its 
years of experience, its tested and perfected methods of 
distribution, its stable and stationary market can show the 
newest and the best pictures to every civilian at once. In 
civilian life there is an economic order "in the showing—first, 
the comparatively few first-run houses; second, the greater 
number of second-run houses, and then the much' greater 
number of third and fourth-run houses. Each must wait its 
turn to show the new releases (the later run houses waiting 
much longer), and a picture is still new when it's a year old. 
Among civilians, in. the United Kingdom a picture is still new 
when it's two years old. 

Of course, there are no first and second and fourth run 
houses in the Army. Theoretically, every location with a 
projector is a first-run house. But not even fabulous Hollywood 
can provide the raw stock, the printing capacity and the money 
to produce the two thousand or more prints it would take to 
give a simultaneous showing of each new picture in the 
overseas camps of this global army of ours. 

Here is what is being provided, currently. For all theaters 
of operations approximately seventy prints of each picture. 
For this theater a total of twenty-five prints of each picture* 
These figures, may be increased, may even be doubled before 
the final victory. But not 2,000 ! 

So, there are twenty-five prints of each picture available for 
showing to the forces in the ETO. The pictures are Hollywood's 
newest and best. As fast as the prints are made, they are 
shipped. As fast as they arrive they are put in circulation 
through Headquarters of Base Sections and of the Air Forces. 
If kept moving, as soon as shown, from location to location, 
from mobile cinema unit to mobile cinema unit, if all Special 
Service Officers co-operate in this, the twenty-five prints should 
complete their mission under six months— cutting the 
accepted commercial time in half. 

'This is the goal the Cinema Branch has been working toward 
during the past sixteen months. In less than a year, the 



24 



Branch has succeeded in getting the number of prints of each 
picture increased from three to four, to eight, to twelve, and, 
now, to twenty-five. 

There you have the story on prints. Now let's tyirn to the 
pictures themselves — the combination of feature and short 
which make ?ap a program. Let's look at the Hollywood 
production schedule fo^ this year. ^ ' ' * 

Approximately three hundred and fifty feature pictures will 
be produced. Of these possibly a hundred will .be "A" pictures. 
At least thirty of the "A's" will be in technicolor, but, for 
technical reasons, only a dozen of-" the technicolor pictures 
will be available to the Army in the 16mm size. So we have 
a total of eighty-two "A" pictures available to the Army. To 
make up say three different programs per week, seventy-four 
first rate "B" features must be found. . 

And that is no mean problem. Certain types of war pictures 
are "out," so far as the. soldier is concerned. Count out, too, 
the heavy domestic drama. The GI wants musicals, lively 
comedy. He'll take a good Western, but not the kiddy, kind. 
Murder thrillers like the Thin Man or the Maltese Falcon, 
(remember them ?) are O.K. Now, you begin to see that " find- 
ing " even three good programs per week is downright tough. 
But that's the target for the Cinema Branch. 

Requisitioning, 16mm Service. Requisition projectors, 1st 
and 2nd-echelon maintenance parts, screens, transformers and 
generators through channels from Signal Supply. For 3rd and 
4th echelon maintenance, turn in projectors to Signal Supply. 
Dependent upon availability, ; Signal Supply will- replace worn 
out and irrepairable projectors with new equipments. 

Requisition film service from the Special Service Section 
of the appropriate Hq Base Section or through Air Force 
channels. . ' " ■ ; 

35mm Service. Requisition through channels from the 
Cinema Branch, Special Service Hq. ETO. 
Operations on the Continent. 

Generally, the procedures now in force in the U.K. for 
obtaining cinema service will prevail On the Continent. 

Units moving to the Continent may carry their projectors 
with their organizational equipment. In addition, they will 
be supplied by the Cinema Branch with a film for each 
projector they carry.' Thus a division with eight projectors 
will also have eight different film programs. This supply 



25 



should serve until the arrival of the Special Service Companies, 
which will operate mobile film exchanges, issuing hew 
pictures for old. 

As Base Sections are established on the Continent, their 
Special Service Sections will operate film exchanges. With the 
establishment of Signal Supply Depots, the 16mm service will 
be complete. 

Operation - of a 35mm^ service on 1;he Continent will be 
undertaken as soon as suitable structures and equipments 
become available. 

Chapter 10— Special. Services 
MUSIC. 

Music is "a language everyone speaks. The soldier speaks 
it with gusto. He's a singing man— under his improvised 
shower, when he marches. At times he sings when he fights. 

Everyone likes some kind of music. A whole class of music 
has been written for the soldier— 4he great band music of the 
world. But the American soldier likes almost every kind of 
music — hot or sweet, popular or classical. - 

In every unit, soldiers will be. found who can play an 
instrument. More than two" makes a band; small, sure, but 
it can be very good. Some, of the best music makers are the 
small novelty orchestras. It is the instruments that are a 
problem. The brasses are especially hard to get. But some 
instruments are almost always obtainable. Requisition 
instruments for a small dance band. You may not always 
get them, brat you should always try. 

Suppose you don't get them. That need not stop you from 
having a good, spirit-lifting, boredom-dispelling music pro- 
gram. There is one instrument that doesn't have to be 
requisitioned. Every man who joins the Army brings it with 
him; it is the human voice. ~ 

Not all voices, however, are good instruments. But every 
man likes to sing, whether he can carry .a' Vane or not. 
Therefore, you can have two kinds of singing, (a) good singing, 
producing good music, put on by the men with good voices. 
This has listener appeal, and can be developed in ways 
enumerated below, (b) Mass singing, where everyone sings 
together and to .heck with the quality. Mass singing gives the 
men with poor voices a chance to sing. 



26 



In a few white units and in most colored units singing starts 
spontaneously, iBjut singing by the men in units usually does 
not just spring up. It needs to be started. Someone has to 
take the lead. Moreover, no one can turn a unit into a singing 
unit just by saying to the men "Go ahead and sing." Here 
are some practical pointers: 

Pick out likely singers by going over the classification, 
cards. Some men will have listed singing as a hobby. Some 
will have professional music backgrounds. - 

Issue a call to a meeting for all men interested in singing. 
Make* special individual contacts to get the men you have 
picked from the cards to be present at the meeting. 

Pick one man as leader if you can. Get him to organize the 
singing at the meeting. Turn the meeting over to the men 
unless you, yourself, x are a good song leader. Tell the leader 
what you will help him with. A glee club? A large chorus? 
Church singing for the chaplain on Sunday? - A musical 
variety show? A show that is an album of American music? 
There are many projects possible for the use and pleasure 
of the men with good voices. Then there are soloists, and 
quartets, classic songs and swingtime, comic songs, rounds, 
etc. A piano helps tremendqusly. Sheet music can be procured 
by requisition on Form 400.. 

After you have a glee club or other musical group going well 
in rehearsal, arrange to present it formally tb a soldier 
audience. If it's that good, see if you can route it on tour of 
the battalions or stations of yojur division or base section. 
Issue a challenge to meet any similar groups from other units 
in a competition. Appoint good- judges for the competition, 
and get as high ranking an officer as you can to head the 
judges. Get your commanding general interested. Send him 
a personal notice or an invitation, or ask him to be a judge, 
or to award a prize. 

For mass singing, until the men get »used to singing .together, 
a good leader is your iirst essential. Any group of men will 
sing with the right, leader. The approach depends on.Jh.is 
leader. Some successful leaders just start playing a piano 
in a hut or building. They play the good old tunes that men 
all know; Down by the Old Mill Stream, Old Black Joe, 
etc. .Pretty soon two or three, then more and more men 
gather remand the piano. The singing starts. That's the 
indirect approach. The direct approach .is to the men in a 



27 



large group. The leader gets out in front. If he's a good 
leader he'll have a good sing and everyone will enjoy it. 

Church services by the chaplain present a good opportunity 
to have hearty singing. The chaplain is usually glad to have 
expert help. Two factors make for good church singing by 
the congregation: One, a choice of old, familiar hymns; two, 
a good hymn leader. 

After singing is pretty well underway, tonettes, harmonicas, 
and other pocket instruments should be issued. Some Special 
Service Officers have found it better to issue a v few 
at first. This seems to create desire to try them by 
men who haven't received them. It builds up a demand for 
them. Then they'll be used when you do issue them instead 
of being neglected. 

Various opportunities arise for satisfying the soldier who 
likes to listen to music. The omit glee club, the regimental 
band (if there is one), a string quartet can have regular 
concerts. Swing bands are always popular. Swapping 
concerts with other organizations extends the listener 
program. 

Records, classical and popular, are a Special Service supply 
item. -They can be used with . a phonograph and public 
address system for concerts. 

Don't rfceglejct '..classical m<usic because you believe most 
young men prefer popular music .< Agaih and again the 
pleasure of the. soldier in listening to classical music has 
astonished people with preconceived notions of what soldiers 
like. In England .the British C.E.M.A concerts have been 
very popular with American troops.' Every concert by 
philharmonic orchestras has attracted large groups of 
American soldiers. So in using records don't stick wholly 
to the dance bands. Try some highbrow stjuff. The reaction 
will probably be better than you expect. 

Experiment. Can you borrow a concert from a nearby 
British outfit? Perhaps they have a bagpipe band. Perhaps 
you can lend them a dance band. It will extend the range 
of music for your men to listen to. It will increase their 
interest and pleasure. 

Music heard or music made 

Jacks the spirits up a grade. 
No Tennyson wrote that couplet, but what it says is* true. 
Music is good morale ammunition. 



28 



Chapter 11— Special Services 
SOLDIER SHOWS. 

To create, organise, and guide a soldier show program re- 
quires careful planning. Without planning, soldier theatri- 
cals can very easily become a kind of theatrical experiment 
or hobby for the amusement of only a small group of 
specialists. You should strive to have it an all-soldier activity 
—a mass participation activity— of benefit to all the men in 
your unit. . . 

When properly planned a soldier show program is valuable. 
It will stimulate and help maintain an alert, confident atti- 
tude in soldiers; it will provide entertainment and relaxation 
for soldiers in their off-duty period; . it will ease the tension 
and tightness that come with intensive training or combat; 
it. will develop qualities of leadership (poise, conviction of 
speech, personality) in the men performing or in charge of 
the different departments. - 

Here are some suggestions: 

Plan a production organization with key men in charge of 
the different departments, who will function with only guid- 
ance on your part when needed. A good production staff 
relieves the Special Service Officer of a lot of detail work 
requiring time that he, can better use in other activities. 

For the »personnel needed check the AG Form 20 classifica- 
tion cards. These cards will give you the-vnames of men in 
your organisation who have the necessary talents. The kind 
of listings to look for with the corresponding specification 
serial numbers are these: 



Actor 


284 


Entertainer 


386 


Entertainment Director 


244 - 


Director, Motion Pictures 


286 


Playwright 


288 


Publie Relations. Man 


274 


Band or Orchestra Leader 


020 


Musician, Instrumental 


021 


Musicians,' Sax, Clarinet, etc. 


432—441, inci 


Artist 


296 


Sign Painter 


145 


Electrician 


078 


Electrical Repairman 


338 


Film Editor* 


131 



29 



Sound Editor 287 
Carpenter " , 050 

Cabinet Maker 038 
Rigger . 189 

Arrange interviews with the men falling into these categories 
and enlist their interest in the proposed program. These men 
usually can give you the names of other entertainers and 
technicians who may not have filled out their Form 20's fully. 

Check all facilities available for -a soldier show -program. Is 
there a building available for staging the show? Where will - 
meetings of the production staff be held? Is there material 
available for building scenery and props? If you are in a 
static installation a completely equipped stage can be re- 
quisitioned from the Supply Branch, Special Service Division, 
APO 887. These stages are constructed in three sizes to fit the 
various types of buildings. See page 68 of this guide for further 
details. 

Probably, however, you will plan to. go ahead without wait- 
ing fox a requisitioned stage. Can >a stage and equipment be 
improvised? The back part of this guide contains sugges- 
tions for improvising stages, curtains, scenery, and electrical 
equipment. See page 113. 

You should now get some scripts ready. A complete folio of 
theatrical script material can be obtained from -the Base 
Section Special Service Officer. Ask that it be sent to you. 
1 You have now taken the following steps: 
Checked the Form 20 cards. . 
Interviewed the prospects.. 

; . Checked you stage and building facilities. 
Sent for and received a folio of scripts. • 

The next step is to call an organising meeting. Carry 
notices of the meeting on bulletin boards, by posters, in Special 
Service bulletins. Announce it in assemblies and mess halls. 

The meeting itself should be informal in -nature. However, 
the Special Service Officer should exercise control so that 
; does not turn into an open discussion group without any 
definite decisions and plans being made. The officer should tell 
of the facilities and material available, where this equipment 
may be -lacking, and his ideas and suggestions on how equip- 
ment can be improvised. 

From the F5rm 20 cards and the interviews you have been 
able to gain a basis i upon' which tB select the key. men in 



30 



charge of the different departments. In making these selections 
take into consideration the personalities and leadership abili- 
ties of the men as well as their -past prof essional experience 
and talent. You will probably want to appoint a program 
director, a technical director, a stage director, and a musical 
director. For a suggested organisation chart see page 110 of 
this guide. 

'Care should be taken at this meeting in the selecting- of the 
material and the type of show cpntemplated. Bear iri* mind 
that it is better to start small and build up, rather than to 
start out planning an extravaganza and ending up with a 
vaudeville act. The following types of shows are listed in the 
order of simplicity -with which they can be put on by" soldiers: 

1, Vaudeville shows; 2, Revues; 3, Minstrel Shows; 4, Old- 
fashioned "Meller" Dramas; 5, Playlets, One Act Plays, Plays, 
and Musical Comedies. Each type is described more fully in 
the latter part of this guide ; page 112. _ ' 

As the meeting progresses, you should gradually shift re- 
sponsibilities and decisions on. to the key men so that when 
they leave they have^ definite duties to perform. Before the 
meeting- ends, rehearsal dates should be set. The 'meeting 
should close with the Special Service Officer explaining the 
duties and -responsibilities of the different men present and 
what part they are to play in the success of the program. He 
should make it understood that he will at all times be available 
for consultation, but that the actual operation is in their 
hands. - ~ ' ' -. 

Production meetings regarding script and technical prob- 
lems can be held by the key men before actual rehearsals 
commence. (When rehearsals start the Special Service Officer 
should make it a point to be present, especially at the 
beginning, so that his interest in the activity is plainly mani- 
fested. He should try and manage to be seen but not heard 
unless the men call upon him for advice when a problem arises 
that possibly only he can answer. If the officer cannot attend 
all the rehearsals he should get a status report so as to know 
how the different departments are functioning. 

However, when it comes • to the final or dress rehearsal the 
Special .Service Officer should certainly attend. It is at this* 
rehearsal that he will pass on all material and performances 
so that there is nothing censorable or of a nature that- would 
bring discredit to the organisation or cause embarrassment to 



31 



the commanding officer. At this rehearsal he should give his 
advice on the speeding up, tightening, and necessary minor 
cutting of the show, being careful that major changes are not 
proposed that would disrupt the performance. Care should be 
taken that the key men are not deprived of a feeling of 
accomplishment, and that any praise to begotten from the 
performance be directed to them and the organisation as a 
whole. 

The theatrical program thus started can be used again for 
•other shows after the first* show has run its course. In the 
meantime your file of scripts can be added to ; and the second 
show can be chosen from one of the slightly more difficult 
types once you have the organisation and experience of the 
first show behind you. (See page 111 of this guide for in- 
formation re filing and use of a script library). 

You will find a «good soldier show program encourages pride 
in organisation among the men whether they are active 
participants or merely the audiences. You will be able to get 
original script material from the. men of the organisation after 
the first successful show. This, if it can be used, will also tend 
to increase the. pride of the men in their unit. > 

Finally the Special Service Officer's responsibility in a soldier 
show program can be summarized as follows: 

To create, organize, and guide the program, enlisting mass 
participation, not a limited recreational accommodation for a 
small body of specialists. 

To allocate the duties and responsibilities of the soldiers 
participating into the proper departments so that they can 
contribute to and= receive the most benefit from the pro- 
gram. 

To make every effort not to select, decide, or actively par- 
ticipate in the various stages in the operation of the program. 

To emphasise that the program is entirely an all-soldier 
activity operating under the enlisted men in charge of the 
different departments. 



Chapter 12 — Special Services 
USO SHOWS. 

As a Special Service Officer you will sooner or later have 
direct concern with a USO Camp Shows troupe. These USO 
shows travel to troop installations by motor vehicle. Their 
reception at an installation and the efficiency with which they 



32 



are taken care of there, reflect directly the experience and 
capability of the Special Service Officer of the installation. For 
each installation played the officer accompanying the show is 
required to submit a report to Hq, ETO. These reports show 
that many installation Special Service Officers need more in- 
formation regarding USO shows before the first one plays at 
their station. 

The following information* if carefully read and followed, 
will prevent most difficulties, both for you and the members of 
the USO Show unit visiting your camp. 

; USO troupes are made up of artists sent from the United 
States supplemented in some cases by British musicians. These 
troupes are allocated to Base Sections for a given period. 
The Base Section Special Service Officer allots the shows 
so as to cover the troops in the Base Section. Due to the 
great number of troops to be served you cannot expect to 
have a USO show visit your unit frequently. 

Each USO unit operates on a fixed schedule prepared in 
advance. Usually the installation Special Service Officer will 
receive 3 or 4 posters some days in advance of the show date. 

Due to paper conservation there will never be more than a 
a few posters sent for a performance. These should be posted 
in key positions where all enlisted men will have an oppor- 
tunity to see them; one in the exchange; one in the mess hall 
or at a central location is suggested. Anticipation of a show 
increases the pleasure of the men. 

Several days before your scheduled show you will receive a 
phone call from the officer in charge of the show. This is a 
check call to be sure the scheduled time is right, that the 
show is expected, that the guide from the installation will be 
at the appointed place on time, and that other details are in 
order. This check is not a duplication of effort on arrange- 
ments already made. It is a safeguard to efficient presentation 
of the show to the enlisted men of your station. Such' phone 
checks have even sometimes revealed that an entire organisa- 
tion has moved to a new location between the time theHshow 
was arranged for and the date of showing. - 

USO actors and actresses are real troupers. Their tour is 
f ar from easy. Travelling by car day in and day out, living 
in the usually unheated small town hotels, playing in all kinds 
ctf stages from a table in a Nissen hut to a stage in a garrison 
theater, eating two meals a day on the civilian ration, changing 



33 



costumes in makeshift dressing rooms, finding their way back 
oyer narrow roads in the blackout, getting to bed usually after 
midnight — is exhausting, hard, work. * 

Their biggest enemy is cold and damp that causes them to 
catch had colds and all too- frequently puts them in the 
hospital. . But they will put on their show come hell or high 
water. And they, will work cheerfully under any difficulties 
when they know the difficulties are not caused by indifference, 
carelessness, or ignorance on the part of the installation Special 
Service Officer. If the latter thinks of them and treats them 
as he would guests in his home they will not ask for anything 
more than guests would. , 

What the installation receiving the show is expected to pro- 
vide is as follows: ' , 

a. A guide into the installation from ian agreed meeting 
place; 

»b. The Special Service Officer or his delegate to meet and 
welcome the show unit on arrival and to remain with it during 
its stay in the camp. 

e. A hot meal to be served before the show. (This is the 
troupe's only chance of getting a really satisfactory meal). 

d. The camp electrician to. be present to assist the show, 
technician and in case of breakdown of electrical equipment: 

e. A detail of 6 to 8 men to help unload and load equipment; 

f. The stage to be clean and neat and the surf ace checked for 
stability, exposed nails, or splinters. 

g. Two dressing rooms, male and female. These should 
adjoin the stage,, if possible.- Improvisation by hanging 
blankets can be utilized. Heat should be provided in cold 
weather. 

h. Dressing fable, mirrors, hooks for hanging clothes, soap, 
towels, washing facilities* including hot water, drinking water, 
one cup for each performer, and toilet facilities. - 

i. ' Seating arrangements to provide maximum audience 
capacity with enlisted men (not officers) seated in front rows. 
(See circular page 181, Subject : Civilian Attendance at USO 
Shows). " . ; 

j. Steps, if any, to the stage, firm .and secure to. avoid, acci- 
dents. 

k. Coordination in scheduling the show so that no conflict of 
other activities in the camp prevents a maximum audience. 



34 



1. Sandwiches and coffee after the show are aiways appre- 
ciated. 

If two shows are scheduled in one evening and one show 
will take care of available personnel, it lis the duty of the 
Special Service Officer to inform the show unit officer so he 
can make the necessary adjustment. Should one show only foe 
scheduled and two shows be necessary, the Special Service 
Officer should arrange with his Base Section or higher echelon 
Special" Service Section for two shows in the future. 

The USO Camp shows maintains an office in London and 
employs civilian Field Supervisors in Base Sections who 
assist in liaison and cooperation as heeded. 

CONTINENTAL OPERATIONS. 

The first USO i show units ion the Continent will be small 
groups of not more than five performers. They will not carry 
any stage equipment except individual musical instruments. 
They may not have their own vehicles. Transportation may 
have to be arranged by the unit to be entertained. > 

Much later, when the situation warrants, USO shows of a 
type now playing in the U.K. will be set up in circuits on the 
Continent. They will operate with their own equipment as in 
the United Kingdom. 



Chapter 13 — Special Services 
MISCELLANEOUS 

This guide is just that, a guide. It cannot cover in detail 
all the activities that a particular Special Service Officer will 
be concerned with. It does not attempt, for instance, to give 
Anglo-American relations the space this subject deserves. All 
U.S. officers and enlisted personnel in the ETO (not just Special 
Service Officers) should be familiar with the letter published in 
Stars and Stripes, 6 March, 1944, addressed " To Every 
American Serving Under My Command " and signed by 
General Eisenhower. From this letter the following is quoted : 

"It is vital that we work with the people of Great Britain, 
both in the fighting services and in civiLlife, on the basis of 
mutual respect, consideration and cooperation. This means that 
we must earn and keep their respect as a great military 
machine, dedicated to the single task of doing our duty in the 
winning of this war." 



35 



Ambassador Winant has said, "Each individual in the 
theater must act as a personal ambassador not only tor the 
Army but for the United States." 

The Special Service Officer will have much to do with 
cooperative Anglo-American relations. Such matters as 
offers of , hospitality, British Welcome Clubs, organized tours 
to. points of interest, welfare cases of U.S. military and 
British civilian origin, joint Anglo-American entertainments, 
dances and parties, exchange of military personnel between 
U.S. and British units, marriages of U.S. soldiers and British 
girls, children born in the United Kingdom of American 
fathers conditions in the neighboring town due to presence 
of U.S. troops, etc., will all come within the range of activity 
of the Special Service Officer. 

The following references are given : 
Allotment of ARC beds in** Circ. 34 Hq ETO, 28 Mar. 1944 

London ... Letter AG 080 (19 April 1944) 

OpGA 

No travel to Northern Ireland 

except on orders Circ. 40 Hq ETO, 16 April 1944 

Food Ration cards for U.S. 

personnel ... ... ... Page 177 of this guide 

Rations in kind for hospitality Page 179 of this guide 
Passports for U.S. children 

born in U.S. ... ... Letter AGOIA, 331, 3 March 

1944 MPGA Hq, ETO 
Allotment of Family Allow- ~ 

ances ... Circ. 27 Hq ETO, 15 March 1944 

Other activities that are not part of every Special Service 
program but have been successfully established by Special 
Service Officers in certain organizations are listed here as re- 
minders that your field of work can expand in many directions. 
Hobby craft shops, lawyers' clubs, farmers' clubs and other 
groups for soldiers of the same civilian trades or professions; 
debating teams, brains-trusts, photography groups, airplane 
model makers, stamp or coin collectors, sketching classes, 
painters in oil and waler color, limerick writers, may all be 
added to your program as felt desirable. Exhibits of hobbies, 
etc.,' are good. Anglo-American weekly discussion groups are 
interesting. ~ 

All these things, of course, are limited, in their appeal, to 
comparatively small groups of men in a unit. For that reason 



36 



they are not as important as mass participation activities such 
as athletics <and singing. But they can be a definite help to 
the welfare of the men. The Special Service Officer has many 
opportunities on these specialized lines. 



Chapter 14 
ENLISTED MEN'S COUNCIL 

An organization that has been found valuable by Special 
Service Officers is an enlisted men's council. Such a council 
is made up of delegates or representatives from each subordi- 
nate unit. The • most effective way of establishing such a 
council is to have your headquarters ask each of its subor- 
dinate units to delegate an enlisted man to attend the council 
at a "certain time and place on the same day each week. 

The following points are suggested for inclusion in a 
directive from your headquarters to the commanding officers 
of your subordinate units. You should modify it, of course, to 
suit your particular conditions: 

1. The Special Service Officer of this headquarters will 
organize an enlisted men's council. 

2. Your organization will delegate a qualified enlisted 
man as a member of the council. 

3. The mission of the enlisted men's council will be : _ 

(a) To determine what activities are most popular and 
most desired by the unit. 

(b) To plan and supervise such athletics as are desired 
by majority of personnel. 

- (c) To determine what books and magazines are most 
popular with personnel, prior to requisitioning. 

(d) To encourage and produce theatrical entertainment 
within the unit. 

(e) To assist unit officers in promoting and supervising 
the sale of National Service Life Insurance and War Bonds 
to members of the unit. 

(f) To assist the designated unit officer in promoting the 
educational program. 

(g) To assist the unit officers in carrying out the 
orientation program. ~ 

(ft) To consider the conditions of enlisted men's morale, 
opinions, recreation, and leisure welfare, and refer resolu- 
tions to this headquarters. 



37 



4. Notify Capt. , Special Service Officer, 
this Headquarters, of the name of your delegate by 

before 1700 hours ; phone , 

5. - Council meetings will be held each week on Monday 
at 0900 hours at 

There is one question about enlisted men's councils that 
should be, decided before they are instituted in aoCommand. 
It is a question that has been the subject of many arguments 
and bull sessions. It is this : Should enlisted, men's council 
meetings be exclusively attended by enlisted men or should 
the Special Service Officer be present? Unless you are bound 
by policy from a higher headquarters, you -must decide this 
question for yourself. The pros and cons are listed herewith : 
Officers should not be present because : 
The presence of an officer prevents free discussion. " 
An officer is apt to take too large a part in the council's 
deliberations. 

The men do not feel that it is really an enlisted men's 
council if an officer is present. 

The line between officers and enlisted men is apt to be 
overstepped. 

An officer can always be invited to attend if his presence 
is necessary. 

The Special Service Officer should be present because : 

He can give decisions on most questions that arise. 

He can furnish information that may not be otherwise 
available in the discussions on some matters. 

His presence gives the men a feeling that he and they are 
a team working together. ~ 

He can guide the council on constructive lines. 

Men with suggestions know that their suggestions have 
been heard by someone who can act on them. 

He gains a better idea of what the men of the unit are 
thinking and of their mental attitude. 

He. can prevent the passing of resolutions or recommenda- 
tions outside of the jurisdiction of the council. 



Chapter 15 
SPECIAL SERVICE ON WHEELS 
The Special Service Company is a product of this war. It is 
an independent, self-sustaining, mobile organization, trained 
and equipped to provide movies, music, GI, and radio entertain- 



38 



ment. It provides a technical service covering athletics, 
theatricals, . orientation, information, and education. It 
operates a circulating library and a publication kit. It operates 
a mobile entertainment and training film exchange. 

It is trained and equipped as a combat company. It is, in 
fact, Special Service on wheels, organized for* rugged duty with 
the operational forces. In Italy, the Special Service Company 
has undergone its baptism of fire and taken its losses along 
with the combat troops. It has proved itself. 

CONTINENTAL OPERATIONS 

On the Continent, Special Service Companies will operate 
with the Field, Service, and Air Forces. At first, they will be 
the main source of Special Service,, circulating films, reading 
matter, organizing, games, providing timely motion picture and 
GI entertainment. Those operating with the Field Forces will 
be attached to Army Hq and Corps Hq ; those with the Air 
Forces will be attached to Air Force Hq ; those with the 
Service Forces to Advance Section and Base Sections Hqs of 
the Communication Zone. 

SPECIAL SERVICE COMPANIES T/O AND E 28-17 

The Special Service Company is composed pf a company 
headquarters and four platoons, comprising 5 officers and 109 
enlisted men. The identity o*f the Special Service Company 
always remains intact, and platoons and similar groupings of 
Special Service Company personnel operate under the technical 
control of the Company Commander who, in turn, is re- 
sponsible to the Chief of Special Service, ETO, through 
channels. 

Commanders arid Special Service Officers at whose head- 
quarters a Special Service Company or platoon is stationed 
will not require the Company or platoon to furnish their 
organizations with more than the normal amount of Special 
Service activities available to other organizations serviced by 
the Company or platoon. 

" The personnel of the Special Service Company will conform, 
in so far as possible, with the regulations and training program 
of the post, camp, or station. However, consideration should 
be given to the fact that the personnel is often engaged after 
midnight in presenting motion picture shows, servicing dances, 
and conducting other off-duty entertainments. 



39 



Six main facilities of service are offered by the Special 
Service Company, 

Motion Pictures*. Seventeen 16mm projectors complete 
with screen, record player and mike, transformer or generator 
are operated by each Special Service Company in the ETO. 
One projector is operated by the Company headquarters for 
emergencies and four projectors by each platoon on a regular 
schedule. Two projectionists are in charge of each projector 
with one technician repairman in each platoon performing 1st 
and 2nd echelon maintenance. The Company carries with it 
a supply of both entertainment and training films. 

Athletics, Each, of the platoons have an experienced ^athletic 
technician trained to direct outdoor and indoor sports activity. 
He is familiar with basic rules of all sports; able to set up 
tournaments,, coach and officiate and help provide facilities for 
100% participation in sports. 

Each platoon athletic section is provided with a supplemen- 
tary athletic Kit A-l. It contains athletic repair equipment, 
baseball bases, athletic supporters, books on sports, and sup- 
plementary athletic equipment for Kit A. 

Music Section. Each company has an organized dance 
orchestra to provide music for dances, shows, and other" 
entertainments'. The members of the orchestra are trained to 
(1) organize dance orchestras and music groups; (2) lead in 
mass singing and train song leaders; (3) instruct in playing 
of the harmonicas, tonettes, ocarinas, and (4) in general, 
promote and encourage musical entertainment for the troops 
by the troops. 

The platoon music section is provided with a kit containing 
harmonicas, tonettes, ocarinas, guitars, mandolin, replacement 
parts, and a repair tool kit. Each platoon is also provided 
with one 40" specially built Stein way piano. 

Theatricals. There are four theatrical technicians, one in 
each platoon, trained to organize and promote any type of 
soldier entertainment. The theatrical and music technicians 
together are prepared to furnish a complete GI show or a 
small entertainment unit, as an "opener" or a "sustainer" 
of the camp or station entertainment program. A theatrical 



* TWX ETOUSA, 25 Jan. 1944, authorises 17 single projectors 
with accessories, screens and power to operate and 9 additional 
% ton weapon carriers. 



40 



kit consisting of costumes, wigs, make-up kit, is provided each 
platoon for use in staging theatricals. ' , •■ 

Orientation, Information, and Education. One technician in 
each of the four platoons is trained to : 

(1) Counsel and assist Special Service Officers and enlisted 
men regarding policy and procedure in all matters pertaining 
to orientation, information, and educational activities. 

(2) Organize and supervise the operation of unit libraries 
and carry out a library rotation schedule. 

Each technician is furnished with a mobile library of fiction 
and educational subjects. In addition, the Company receives 
each month a supply of. "Council Books," pocket size best 
sellers, for distribution where the need is greatest. ' 

Each platoon is provided with a publication kit for publish- 
ing news bulletins and to publicize, effectively, Special Service 
activities within its area. 

Radio— -Phonograph and Public Address Systems. Known 
as a " P.A." system, on© is provided with each platoon's equip- 
ment. It is operated by a radio technician, providing recorded 
music, transcribed radio programs, radio programs, and a 
complete address system for amplification of musical and 
entertainment skits and dance programs. 
Special Service Company Transportation Facilities: 
One — 1/4-ton command car. 
Five— 2J-ton cargo trucks. 
Thirteen— 3/4-ton weapons carriers*. 
Five — dne-ton trailers. 



Chapter 16— Morale Services 
MORALE FACTORS 

What is morale? 

A soldier has high morale when he : 

1. Has a high degree of zeal for his task, whether working 
or fighting. 

2. Accepts discipline Willingly, understanding the necessity 
for personal subordination to the good of the team. 

3. Has a high degree of self-confidence. 



* T WX. ETOUSA. 25 January 1944, authorizes total 13 trucks— 
f ton. ' ' 

41 



4. Is fundamentally satisfied with his role as a soldier in 
the Army. 

Therefore the target for mental conditioning of troops 
consists of the four components listed above. We can label 
them for short : zeal, discipline, self-confidence, satisfaction. 
When soldie'rs have these four attitudes, they have high morale. 
Let's examine them more closely. 

ZEAL : Everyone recognizes the difference between that 
performance of duty which is half-hearted or grudging, 



SCORES ON A SCALE OF ZEAL 

Among. . . lowest medium highest 



. .Army cross section 
. .awOl's 



even punctilious with respect to regulations, but no more, 
and that performance into which the soldier throws himself 
wholeheartedly. Zeal may be described as the voluntary 
"plus" which a man gives to his task — over and beyond 
perfunctory obedience to regulations. This "extra" courage, 
endurance and resourcefulness is important not only among 
the men actually at' the front line of battle* but equally among 
the many rear echelon troops whose devotion to their tasks' 
may mean lives saved and battles won. , 
DISCIPLINE : Outward conformity, enforced by arbitrary 
authority, is not good discipline, though it is sometimes 
mistaken for it. Nor can discipline be denned as automatic 
response to commands. Discipline which is sound and 
• reliable enough to depend on in crises exists only when the 
soldier himself has been shown the significance and 
necessity for it, and has come to accept the requirements 
of discipline as standards by which he judges his own 
performance. It is at this point that discipline, or the 
acceptance of discipline, becomes an expression of high 
morale. 

SELF-CONFIDENCE: Genuine self-confidence implies a 
fundamental belief in personal adequacy, which is not to be 
confused with mere superficial cockiness. (The latter is 
frequently only the surface compensation for a deep-seated 
sense of inadequacy.) Self-confidence is, essentially, a basic 
sense of personal worth, and is founded on a realistic 
appraisal of what- the job is like, and on confidence in one's 
training and equipment for the job to be done. 



42 



SATISFACTION : In every army at every rank there is a 
certain amount of griping and grumbling. Much of it is a 
healthy part of the process of adjusting to unpleasant and 
demanding conditions. Satisfaction with army life does not 
imply absence of such "griping" but it does mean the 
absence • of deeper discontents, which seriously undermine 
zeaK and discipline., Boredom, a feeling of not being 
effectively used, of having to endure hardships and priva- 
tions which are regarded as unnecessary, the feeling that 



SCORES ON A SCALE OF SATISFACTION 

Among. . . lowest medium highest 


. . .Army cross section 32% SS'&h 


45% ■ 






. . .AWOi'S ?l% 13% 









one's welfare is of no concern to one's superiors, worries 
- about problems at home — these things may, and often do, 
create profound unrest and dissatisfaction, 
Zeal, discipline, self-confidence, satisfaction. These are the 
attitudes we want the troops to have. These are what we're 
aiming at. How can we develop these attitudes? Seldom can 
they be influenced directly. These four are general attitudes. 
We produce them in troops by influencing certain specific 
attitudes, by changing certain specific conditions. - 

All the specific attitudes discussed below have an important 
bearing on morale. They all tend to change for the better the 
general attitudes of zeal, discipline, self-confidence, satisfaction : 

■ 1. BELIEF IN THE ARMY'S CONCERN FOR, INDIVIDUAL 
WELFARE: The degree to which the soldier is convinced 
that his superiors are genuinely concerned with his personal 
welfare is closely related to his acceptance of discipline 
and his general satisfaction with Army iife. Commanding 
officers genuinely concerned about the welfare of their men 
can frequently do much about food, medical care, recreation; 
furloughs, etc. But morale will not suffer even where 
conditions are tough or unpleasant if it is clearly demon- 
strated to the men that their leaders are doing all they 
can to improve the situation. A soldier's worries about' the 
problems of his family back home can sometimes be 
lightened by actual solution of these problems, but even 
where nothing concrete can be done K the .officer who will 
talk over the soldier's problems with him sympathetically 
will do something .to alleviate his worries and much to 



43 



sustain his morale. It is next to impossible to maintain 
high morale if soldiers believe their personal welfare and 
problems are matters of indifference to officers. 

2. SATISFACTION WITH JOB ASSIGNMENT: Efficient 
utilization of manpower requires the maximum effort to 
assign men where their skills and capacities can be used 
most effectively. This matter assumes even great' import- 
ance when it is realised that all four of the general morale 
factors, zeal, discipline, satisfaction and self-confidence are 
closely related to satisfaction with job assignment. Where 
military necessity precludes placement in work related to 
a soldier's skill or interests, much can be done for his 
mental attitude by explaining to him why it is necessary to 
keep him in his job, and by emphasizing the importance to 
the total war effort of the job he is doing. In combat 
situations, the relationship of this important aspect of 
morale to the problem of replacements is crucial. Proper 
assignment of replacements has proved to be a morale 
factor of first importance, not only for the soldiers coming 
into the lines, but also for the units to which the new men 
are sent. 

3. REALISTIC APPRAISAL OF THE JOB AHEAD: Data col- 
lected to date seem to indicate that both extreme optimism and 
extreme pessimism are undesirable states of mind for good 
morale. Extreme optimism has not (been found to be related to 
high self-confidence. Further, severe morale setbacks have 
been kriown to occur among combat troops who started action 
with an over-optimistic view of the ease of their task only 
to be subsequently surprised and disillusioned when they 
discovered how tough the mission really was. ... Extreme 
pessimism about the difficulty of the task appears to be 
related, in some degree, to undesirable attitudes toward 
discipline and a low satisfaction with Army life. 

It is one of the important functions of the Special Service 
Officer to combat over-confidence — to steel men for a grim 
and prolonged struggle. At the same time, a program to 
instil in men an understanding of the toughness of the job 
ahead must be linked closely with an orientation program 
convincing the men that, victory is so important that it is 
worth the cost. 

4. CONFIDENCE IN TRAINING AND EQUIPMENT: 
'.■ Confidence in the training he is receiving and the equip- 
ment he is issued, both of . which increase his chances of 
winning and surviving battles, is obviously a strong support 
to the soldier's morale. In actual combat situations, good 
training will help men-to make a fair assessment of the 
merits of their own and of the enemy's equipment. It is 
also important that he be kept informed, so far as possible, 
of the facts regarding the particular tactics and weapons 
employed by the enemy. False rumors about the equip- 
ment or the efficiency of enemy and of friendly forces must 
be quickly spotted and counteracted, if confidence is to be 
maintained. 

44 



BELIEF IN THE IMPORTANCE OF THE MISSION: This 
phrase stands for the soldier's belief that the assignment of his 
outfit is important in winning the war. A soldier who is 
convinced that the functions and duties of his outfit have 
little significant relation to the total war effort will tend 
to have correspsndingly low morale. Research studies 
show that zeal, discipline, self-confidence, and satisfaction- 
. with Army life are all related to belief in the significance 
of one's type of service. 

The problem is often particularly acute among supply 
..troops and other rear-echelon soldiers. Troops in inactive 
or isolated bases may also be particularly subject to the 
(feeling that their part in the war is unimportant. However, 
the f eeling that the task in hand is "not worth while" may, 
in the absence of positive countermeasures, develop any- 
where. Even among combat troops, programs designed to 
show how the work of the unit' fits into the picture of the 
campaign as a whole have been shown to be desired by 
the enlisted man and of great interest to him. 



HOW RESPECT FOR LEADERS 
IS RELATED TO PRIDE AND 
CONFIDENCE IN OUTFIT 

Percentage with . . . 



Greatest Pride and Confidence 



Medium Pride and Confidence 



Least Pride and Confidence 



Among Men whose Respect 
for Leaders is : 
Least Medium Most 




8% 



45 



6. PRIDE AND CONFIDENCE IN OUTFIT: Most experienced 
. military leaders properly emphasise that if a soldier's outfit 

stands in his mind for high quality and able performance, 
this attitude drives him to a great effort to live up to that 
- standard. The attitudes which- a soldier has toward his 
outfit are in part a reflection of what soldiers in other 
outfits say, and even of what civilians say. The commanding 
officer of a Parat'roop regiment, for example, has an easier 
task in building pride in outfit than does' the commander 
of an Infantry regiment. But "esprit de corps" or team 
spirit has a more personal side— the feeling ,of comrade- 
ship and of "belonging" to the outfit— which the resource- 
ful officer can support by giving his men encouragement' 
and recognition and fostering their feeling of being a valued 
part, of the unit. Respect for leadership, and pride and 
confidence in outfit have been found to be very closely 
related. The man who has such pride is , the most likely 
to rate high in his attitude toward discipline, and in satis- 
faction with Army life. 

7. FAITH IN THE CAUSE AND IN THE FUTURE: Attitudes 
in this category have been found to be related to all of the 
basic general morale factors. Included here are: 

(a) The conception the soldier has of the aims of the war. 
effort. 

(b) The value he places on these aims, and the degree to 
which he identifies his personal values and interests 

- with the collective purpose. - 

(c) The confidence that what he believes are worthwhile 
aims unll actually be achieved, including the belief that 
after the war he will be able to achieve a reasonable, 
personal security. 

Organising the efficient dissemination, interpretation and 
discussion of military and home-front news can help to 
provide the necessary perspective. Outlining the Army's, 
plans for economic and educational help to the demobilized 
soldier and transmitting authoritative forecasts of post-war 
developments and job opportunities should be of some help 
in sustaining the soldier's faith that the things he is fight- 
ing for will actually be achieved. , *• 

What is morale? 

Think of zeal; willing discipline; self -confidence*; satisfaction. 



Chapter 17 

THE SPECIAL SERVICE OFFICER AS A STAFF OFFICER 
; As a Special Service Officer you are a staff officer. There is 
much more to being a good staff officer than knowing Special 
Service. Any staff officer,; whatever his branch of service or 
.his special field of work, must know something about how staffs 



46 



work. He must know . what his obligations are as a staff 
officer. Whether he is the Special Service Officer, the Provost 
Marshal, the S-2 or the Adjutant doesn't matter. Certain 
rules apply to all staff officers; 

; To understand them and to apply them correctly the staff 
officer must have in his mind a clear idea of the basic doctrines 
of the staff. These are officially on record in FM 101-5 entitled 
"Staff Officers' Field Manual— The Staff and Combat Orders." 
Every good officer must be familiar with Chapter 1 of this 
field manual. (A note in passing is that the duties of the 
Special Service Officer are in Par. 39 3/4. This is a recent 
change which you may not find in old copies of FM 101-.5). 
To summarize briefly the staff doctrine of FM 101-5 : 
The commander alone is responsible to his superior for all 
that his unit does or fails to do. The staff of a unit consists 
of the officers who assist the commander in his exercise of 
command. A staff officer as such has' no authority to com- 
mand. AH policies, decisions, and plans, whether originating 
with the commander or with the staff, must be ^authorized by 
the commander before they are put into effect. When a staff 
officer by virtue of delegated authority issues an order in the 
name of the commander, responsibility remains with the com- 
mander even though he may not know of the order. 

You would be wise to keep the three following points in mind, 
especially when the going gets tough : 

1. A staff officer carries out the intentions of his com- 
mander. In the absence of instructions he acts as he believes 
his commander would instruct him to act if his commander 
were present. , 

2. The staff officer best serves his commander by best serv- 
ing the troops. 

3. A staff officer must be loyal to his commander. The 
only time for disagreement with the policy or decision of the 
commander is before the. decision is announced by the com- 
mander. Once the latter has made known his decision, it is 
the job of his staff to carry out the policy decided, no matter 
how strongly they may have believed an opposite decision 
should have been made. 

In short, your orders to yourself as a staff officer should be : 
Carry out the C.O.'s intentions, serve the troops,, be loyal to 
your chief. 



47 



Chapter 18 
YOUR SPECIAL SERVICE 

An infantryman is damned proud ef being an infantryman. 
Artillerymen think there's no branch as good as theirs. 
Repeat for all arms. Repeat again for the services ; the 
medicos are proud of their service, the Transportation Corps 
is new but has esprit de corps, the ordnance boys think they're 
pretty hot stuff. 

And Special Service? Well, Special Service Officers have 
good reasons for being proud of their service. The Special 
Service Officer has an opportunity as good as any officer's 
in the Army. He can increase fighting power by his activity 
if he can add ten per cent to a unit's effectiveness by 
increasing morale. It will be the only ten per cent added to 
the Army that needs no transportation, no added equipment, 
no extra weight in a man's pack. Yes, it will be the only 
ten per cent the enemy can't destroy without first killing 
every man in the unit. 

The Special Service Officer is the commander's staff officer 
for the morale of his troops. The commander's responsibility 
for morale cannot be delegated— but the commander can be 
assisted and advised in morale matters. The Special Service 
Officer does this. The best way he can support his 
commander is to think, and worry, and act for the welfare 
of the men. 

Care for . the men's welfare is basic to good leadership. 
It is basic to good morale. It is the making or breaking 
of a unit. Poor leadership or good leadership decides an 
army's failure or success. In this sense no staff officer has 
a more important job than the Special Service Officer. 

If he does not realize this, if he does not actively help the 
commander in being a good leader by caring for the welfare 
of his troops, he has muffed a superb opportunity. The Special 
Service Officer may muff the job. The leader cannot muff it 
and remain a good leader. Without a good Special Service 
Officer the leader is forced to place his reliance on another 
staff officer and carry a bigger load himself. There 
is your opportunity, Special Service Officer. There is your 
chance to make good— and making good you will have done a 
service to the Army that you can be very proud of indeed. 

Special Service Officers have made good in this basic mission 
of morale-^-and their commanders' troops have shown the 



48 



result in combat with the enemy. One© you thoroughly grasp 
this idea you become one of the key men in an organization. 
Until you grasp it you are a theatrical producer, or a cinema 
officer, or a provider of entertainment, or a cheer leader, or 
an education advisor. The minute you enlarge your thinking, 
everything that affects the welfare of the men becomes your 
business. 

You are interested that the men get. their mail promptly 
though mail is an AG problem and not handled by Special 
Service. You are interested in knowing that there are 
adequate supplies for the men in the Army Exchange. 
Unsatisfactory mess conditions are your baby in that the 
men's welfare is affected, though it is definitely not expected 
that you run the mess. Cooperate with other officers pretty 
completely. 

Then you have definite matters that you must run yourself 
and accept direct responsibility for. Athletics, entertainment, 
orientation, off-duty time education, cinema, Special Service 
supplies, etc., etc. Important work, all of it, which must be 
done well, in spite of inadequate numbers of personnel, lack 
of equipment, and constant need for improvisation. 

To help you with ideas, with news of improvisations made 
by other Special Service Officers, the Special Service Division, 
ETO, publishes periodically a small pamphlet called Reecap. If 
you aren't receiving Reecap, ask for it through your next 
higher echelon. 

Improvisation calls for imagination. This adds another 
quality to what you'll need as part of your personal equip- 
ment. Initiative, tact, <x>operativeness, imagination, and un- 
limited amounts of energy. 

That makes your job a tough, hard, real job in any man's 
army. Its possibilities are limited only by your capacity for 
doing an expert's work. You can fritter away your time, you 
can antagonize, others, you can wash your hands of welfare 
matters that the book says are the responsibility of others. 
Sure, and then you will have no pride in Special Service — 
and vice versa. - 

Or you can be on the ball, you can be a real help to your 
commanding officer, you can be the authority on the leader- 
ship and welfare of the men, you can use your administrative 
and organizing talents to have a smooth-running' coordinated 
Special Service operation. And the men of your organization 



49 



will have an esprit and a morale that you can be very proud 
to have had a hand in creating. 

Your own pride in your outfit and in Special Service will 
then be tops. - 



Chapter 19 

POINTS FROM COMBAT. 

From reports of Special Service Officers of field force f units 
which have fought the Germans. The Special Service Officer in 
each case was on the staff of • a unit indicated in parenthesis. 

When your Athletic Technicians go out, they cannot take 
their equipment with them ; they have to improvise. Make 
a football out of a canteen, etc. Don't try to make these 
games too big. Hold them down to company size. (Army) 

Be sure you have just one type of projector. Have six 
projectors available for each division, using Ave of them and 
keeping one in reserve for spare parts. (Army) 

Encourage group singing. Sing' cowboy songs, bar-room 
songs, and soldier songs. (Army) 

When you are in the front lines show movies seven days a 
week. When in rest areas, show movies six days a week and' 
leave Sundays for church services. (Army) 

When a man comes back from the front line, he wants to 
take a shower, get a haircut, press his clothes,, and clean up 
in general. After he does this he feels like a new man. 
(Army) 

On language courses, teach things the men use in service, 
the simple little phrases they use in their work. Let it go 
at that. The rest they will pick up themselves. Concentrate 
on French and German, but don't give them too much of 
either. (Army) 

When you go into a town where the houses of prostitution 
are, contact the M.P.s and gain their assistance in eliminat- 
ing them. They do more damage in one week than the damn 
Heines do in a month. (Army) 

When fighting G2 has nine-tenths of the problems, when the 
fighting stops you have the nine-tenths. (Army) 

When a man comes over from the States, orient him. Teach 
him 'what the Hun looks like, what kind of weapons he has 
and what kind of units he has. Impress him with the fact 
that he is a much better man than the Hun. Tell him what 



50 



he will be up against over there. Tell him his is not going to 
a Sunday School picnic. (Army) 

We have the best Army, Navy, Marines, and Air Corps 
there is.* We must learn to help one another and when we 
get over there, it will pay big dividends. (Army) 

In the line the soldier should be supplied r with reading 
material and writing material for letters. (Division) 

There should be a generator with each projector. Movies 
have been shown as close as three miles to the front line. 
(Division) 

After combat athletics are not needed for about 30 days. 
Then you should have an athletic program ready. (Division) 

Work with American Red Cross. They can be gotten to set 
up day rooms from town to town. (Division) 

Each Special Service Officer must service all troops in his 
area. (Division) 

I had one officer with a security group in front to find 
out what was in the town. One officer was at the forward 
Command Post. His job was to pick up anything reported 
back by the officer with the security group. Two officers were 
at the rear CP. One was continually at headquarters, the 
other moved back and forth for supplies. You must keep 
constantly in touch with higher echelons. Continually report 
verbally to CG on state of morale of his troops. (Division) 

In combat each squad should have some playing cards. 
(Army) 

In delivering Special Service supplies, take them to the 
front and work towards the rear. Start with front companies 
and batteries and come rearward. (Army) 

Each company and battery should have a library of 100 
books. Song books should be included. (Army) 

Venereal disease control and summary courts martial are 
important. Every man confined by disease or for discipline, 
is a man lost to the outfit. Teach the men the local diseases. 
Put . this in their educational program. (Army) r . >," 

Check the men's insurance before action. (Army) 

We arranged for motion picture film exchange every seven 
days at council meetings. Every division should have six 
projectors. (Army) 

1 Cooperate. Help the other guy. Lend supplies between 
units, , etc. (Army) 



.51 



Check for green light stations first day. Go through towns 
at once and see what places you want to have closed up. 
ARC field director can have a club open in 24 hours. Men 
will want shoe shine, clothes pressing, shave, haircut, showers, 
in a central location. Speed is necessary in taking over 
buildings. (Army) 

If the average combat soldier was asked the four most 
important factors contributing to his personal happiness, his 
reply in all probability would be : 1, Mail ; 2, Post Exchange 
Supplies 1 3, Movies; 4, News and Reading Material. 
(Regiment) 

So important was news considered that when our units were 
in the line and message center distribution was difficult and 
dangerous, only important vital messages were permitted so 
as to cut' to a minimum the. movement of men and vehicles. 
Stars .& Stripes and Yank were on that list as urgent. 
(Regiment) 

It was possible" once in a while to pick up radio news via 
short wave at the Regimental CP, and type out a one-page 
news sheet with a limited distribution of 35 copies to cover the 
regiment. (Regiment) ^ 

It is imperative that personal contact be maintained with 
the Division Special Service Officer at the Rear Echelon head- 
quarters for he receives information and supplies from time 
to time that may mean an improvement in your services to 
the men. (Regiment) 

Preparation for activities during a rest period. B£ pre- 
pared, if possible, to reach the rest area ahead of the regi- 
ment, dig up what information is available; for the comfort 
and recreation of the troops and publish a memo, written 
or oral, as soon as they reach the area. (Regiment) 

When the regiment is pulled out of the line for short rest 
periods of from two to seven days, we make every effort to 
show movies every night. On any longer period movies are 
shown three times a week ; Monday, Wednesday, and Friday. 
This schedule was adhered to at the conclusion' of the Tunisian 
Campaign and aided in eliminating any confusion and doubt- 
as to the date of shows. (Regiment) 

It was soon discovered that the Company Commander and 
his Athletic Officer were the "key to a good athletic program 
within a unit. Their, interest or indifference make a great 
difference in the unit's active participation. (Regiment) 



52 



At every opportunity bathing and shower facilities should 
be made available to the men of the organization. "Combat 
troops are many times forced to do without these sanitary 
facilities for long periods and may even be deprived of a 
change of clothes for as much as two months. An important 
function of the Special Service Officer upon reaching a bivouac 
or rest area, is to investigate all. facilities for washing and 
bathing and complete arrangements for units to use these 
facilities in accordance with a coordinated plan, Perhaps 
active supervision on the part of the Special Service Officer 
may- be necessary. (Regiment) 



Chapter 20 
THE AMERICAN RED CROSS 

The American Red Cross is the people of the United States, 
your family and mine, their hearts and their dollars and dimes, 
expressed in the small piece of U.S.A. that is the American 
Red Cross Club overseas ; expressed, too, in the doughnuts and 
hot coffee of a Clubmobile pulled up in the mud, surrounded 
by a bunch of grinning GIs ; expressed most of all in the Red 
Cross Girl, the girl with the back-home accent. But she's a 
story for the GI to write. 

AR 850-750, 30 June 1943, gives the mission of the American 
Red Cross in full. Those parts most pertinent to overseas 
operations are reproduced below : 

"To provide consultation and guidance with regard to per- 
sonal and family problems of the soldier. 

" To provide assistance with communications between 
soldiers and their families and with inquiries concerning their 
location and welfare. 

"To provide or arrange for financial assistance needed by 
families of soldiers. 

"To refer soldiers or their families to appropriate agencies! 
specializing in legal aid; medical or psychiatric care, employ- 
ment, and the like. 

" Hospital service for patients. — The Red Cross, working in 
close cooperation with and under the guidance of the medical 
authorities, will render the same service to patients and duty 
personnel in hospitals as outlined above. In addition it will : 
' "Provide comfort articles for those patients who are 
temporarily without funds or to whom these articles are not" 
accessible. 



53 



" Plan and direct medically approved individual and group 
recreation for bed patients and convalescents. 

" Communicate with the families of patients. 

"Assist patients who are unable to Carry on their own 
correspondence to maintain communication with their families. 

" It being recognised that the primary purpose of the Red 
Cross in time of war is the care of the sick and wounded, 
additional services to the able-bodied outside the continental 
United States may be made as follows : 

"To transmit funds to soldiers' beneficiaries living in the 
United States, in cases of individual emergencies. This will 
be done only iwhen postal pr cable'facilities are available. 

"To aid military authorities in securing information regard- 
ing missing or captured men. 

" To furnish comfort articles when ne"ed has been established. 

" To meet the emergency needs for athletic and recreation 
material and to assist with the recreation program for able- 
bodied troops. It is not intended that the Red Cross will 
duplicate or parallel the work of the War Department in these 
activities. 

" In areas assigned to the Red Cross by the War Depart- 
ment, to provide feeding, housing and recreation facilities 
adjacent to military concentrations when requested by the 
proper military authorities. It is not intended that the Red 
Cross will duplicate or parallel the work of the War Depart- 
ment in these activities. 

"The details of recreational operations under policy decisions 
concerning relations between the Red Cross and the Army are 
to be carried out through the Director, Special Service Division, 
War Department. 

" In the theaters of war and in other areas subject to 
military jurisdiction, activities of the Red Cross will be 
governed by such administrative regulations as may be pre- 
scribed and will conform to the orders of the commanding 
general- and of those acting for him." 

CONTINENTAL OPERATIONS 

The American Red Cross calls the Continent Zone V. Its 
plan for Zone V includes the use of Clubmobiles, Donut Dug-- 
outs and a fleet of twelve Cinemobiles. The Donut Dugouts 
are tent clubs serviced by both the Clubmobiles and Cine- 
mobiles. The Dugout will be moved from location to location 



54 



according to desirability. The Dugouts will have limited sleep- 
ing facilities. As conditions warrant, regular Red Cross 
Service Clubs will be opened. 

As in the UK the American Red Cross will have a program 
on the Continent for the sick and . wounded soldier. Writing 
materials, personal comforts, reading matter, and, small games 
for those who can use them will be provided. 

COORDINATION : General Eisenhower has said "In any 
command, Special Service and American Red Cross activities 
will be coordinated to avoid duplication of effort and to afford 
maximum benefit to the soldier." To this end, Commanders 
look to their Special Service Officers to coordinate closely with 
American "Red Cross field directors, and to make the utmost 
use of Red Cross services and facilities. This is a constructive 
partnership, Special Service Officer and Red Cross field director 
working together in a common cause. 



55 



Headquarters 
European Theater op Operations 
Special Service Division 
United States Army 
APO 887 

8 May 1944. 

SPECIAL SERVICE SUPPLY MEMORANDUM NUMBER 6. 

1. RESCISSION. This Memorandum rescinds Memoranda 1 
through 5 and any information previously published in Reecap 
which is in conflict herewith. 

2. CHANNELS: All Special Service equipment is now issued 
by, or on the recommendation of, the Base Section, USSTAF, or 
EWATC Special Service Officer. Consequently, all requisitions 
must be channeled through the Base Section, USSTAF„or EWATC, 
before being acted j>n by the Supply-Fiscal Branch of the Special 
Service Division. 

(a) Requisitions for sample kits of self -teaching materials may 
be sent direct to United States Armed Forces Institute, Head- 
quarters, SOS, APO. 871, after approval by the Base Section, 
USSTAF or EWATC Special Service Officers. 

(b) , Applications and materials for United States Armed 
Forces Institute correspondence courses may be routed direct 
between the student and United States Armed Forces Institute. 

(c) Allocations concerning operational troops only will be 
shipped either to the Base Section distributing points or to one 
central location as determined by the Special Service Officer of 
the Operational Command concerned. Retail distribution of this 
equipment will hot be made at G-24, except for troops within the 
Western Base Section. / . ' 

3. Distributing points for Special Service equipment are located 
as follows : 

4. 35 MM. PROJECTION EQUIPMENT : Prior to issue of 35mm. 
Projection Equipment, the location at which the equipment will 
be installed must be inspected by qualified personnel of the 
Cinema Branch. Recommendations for this inspection should be 
made by the Base Section or Higher Headquarters Special Service 
Officer, only after survey has been made by his Office. 

5. EQUIPMENT FOR SPECIAL SERVICE COMPANIES : 

(a) Requisitions from Special Service Companies for items 
normally supplied by Special Service must be approved by the 
Special Service Officer of the Command to which the Special 
Service Company is attached > or assigned. Requisitions for 
separate platoons will not be accepted unless approved "by the 
Company Commander. It is desired that Base Section and Air 
Force distributing points provide miscellaneous items of equip- 
ment to Special Service Companies and that requisitions be 
submitted to the Supply-Fiscal Branch only for those items which 



56 



are riot normally stocked by or not in sufficient quantity at the 
distributing point. ;' ~ '--^ % 

(b) T/E Equipment other than that supplied by Special 
Service should be requisitioned direct from the Base Section 
Supply Office for the appropriate service. Same applies to 
replacement parts. . -. 

6. PURCHASE: Requisitions for purchase of supplies must be; 
"indorsed by the Base Section Special Service Officer to the effect 
that the items are not currently available for issue. 

7. BILLIARD TABLES: 

(a) Future distribution of Billiard Tables will be made only 
to Hospitals, Posts, Camps r and Stations of a permanent nature. 
It will be necessary for the approving authority to determine the 
degree of permanency before forwarding requisitions for this 
equipment. Requisitions now on hand will not be affected. 

(b) Numerous reports have been received of 'careless" 
handling of his equipment. Necessary preventive and corrective 
measures should be taken within each Command to assure that 
Billiard Tables are being properly cared for. It is recommended 
that Billiard Tables and any other equipment which is not being 
properly maintained by a Unit be recalled by Base Section 
Commander and re-issued to another Organization. 

(c) Regarding maintenance of other equipment, your atten- 
tion is invited to War Department Circular Number 107* dated 
15 March 1944, subject : "Responsibility for Maintenance of Special 
Services and Morale Services Equipment". 

8. SUBSCRIPTIONS TO BRITISH NEWSPAPERS AND 
PERIODICALS : 

(a) Units requiring newspapers for authorized use will 
contact their nearest reliable newsagent and ascertain, that he 
is able to supply. Form 400 will be submitted in quadruplicate, 
through channels, to Chief of Special Service, APO. 887, indicating 
that a suitable newsagent has been located stating his name and 
address. It is emphasized that these newspapers are provided for 
use in day-rooms for enlisted men, and requirements should be 
kept to a minimum. Basis for requesting newspapers must be 
given on requisition as: "Dayrooms, Hospitals or Library". 

(b) After the requisition has been approved, the requisitioned 
will be advised to place an. order direct with the nominated news- 
agent. Acknowledgment of requisition form containing advice that 
the requisition has been forwarded to OCQM does not authorize 
the placing of the order. 

(c) Units placing orders with Newsagents should notify the 
Newsagents to submit their bills each quarter to the unit. When 
these bills are received by the unit, the following certification will 
be made thereon, and the invoices forwarded to OCQM, Pro- 
curement Division, APO.887, for payment thru H.M. Stationery 
Office : - 

"These items were received, and no payment has been made 
by U.S. Forces." 

Signed,... .......... 



57 



(d) The titles and quantities of the papers delivered by the 
Newsagents must be clearly indicated on the bill. 

(e) Subscriptions for publications published less frequently 
than once a week will not be approved on these requests. 

9. RENTAL OF HALLS : (a) The following information will 
be provided when it is necessary to hire a hall for use of Special 
Service activities such as dances, live shows, cinemas or sporting 
events : — 

1. Name and address of building. 

2. Purpose for which wanted. 

3. Period or date wanted. 

4. Whether management has indicated facilities are available. 

5. Rental price. i 

6. Personnel who will be entitled to attend. 

7. Basis of admission (whether or not free). 

(b) Requisitions on QMC Form Number 400 will be sub- 
mitted through normal channels so as to be in the office of the. 
Supply-Fiscal Branch, Special Service Division, not less than 
fifteen days prior to the date the hall is to be used. „ 

(c) Bills for hire of halls which are procured by above 
procedure should not be paid by the unit using the hall. Such 
bills should be. forwarded to the British Cpmmand Entertainment 
Officers. 

10. PURCHASES : (a) The Special Service Division has a 
general fund with which authorized purchases are made for the 
welfare of enlisted men. The only officer authorised to approve 
such purchases is the Supply and Fiscal Officer, Special Service 
Division, APO.887. , Therefore, Special Service Officers desiring to 
purchase supplies or procure services in the field must submit a 
request in writing through normal channels, to the Supply and 
Fiscal Officer* Special Service Division, HQ, ETOUSA, APO.887, 
stating the cost of the items and the name and address of the 
supplier. Such requests, upon approval by this office ^and the 
General Purchasing Agent, will be authorized. A numbered 
Purchase Authorization will be forwarded to the unit. Invoices 
submitted for payment that have not received prior approval of 
the Supply and Fiscal Officer will be returned without action as 
a demand for payment cannot be placed on unauthorized 
purchases. With reference to purchases, your attention is invited 
to paragraph 4, Circular 28, HQ. ETOUSA, dated 16 March 1944. 

(b) The only supplies or services which will be approved for 
payment are those supplies or services which are not procurable 
from the British on Reciprocal Aid and U.S. Army sources, or 
those items which are hot procurable from normal channels within 
the time needed. A certified statement to this effect will be made 
when submitting your request. 

(c) Many of the invoices submitted to this office for payment 
must be returned as they are not properly prepared. This delays 
the payment and causes additional work for the units concerned. 
Invoices submitted for payment will be prepared as follows : 

(1) Invoice will be submitted in triplicate. 

(2) Invoice will be typewritten or written in, ink. 



58 



(3) Invoice will indicate the supplies and/or Service for which 
payment is desired. If for supplies, the invoice will be itemized; to 
show the unit cost and quantity of each item. If for services, the 
cost and inclusive dates for which the service was rendered will 
be shown. ^ ' 

(4) Invoice will bear* the authorization number of this office. 

(5) Invoice will bear a personally signed certification by ah 
official of the firm which reads as follows: "I certify that the 
above charges are correct and just and that payment therefor 
has not been made." 

(6) Invoice will bear a personally signed certification by the 
officer receiving the supplies and/or services which reads as 
follows: "I certify that the above (state service and/or supplies) 
have been satisfactorily received and that payment therefor has 
not been made by U.S. Forces." 

(7) Invoices which show the item "expenses" must be 
itemized to show the supplies and/or services received thereunder, 

giving a full description, i.e., train fare from... ..to.. 

£........... ; meals at.. hotel, £ , etc. The 

invoices bearing such expenses will be certified by an officer as 
follows: " I- certify that the (state supplies and/or service) was 
necessary in the military service and was not available through 
regular U.S. Army sources and is, therefore, approved for 
payment." 

(8) Original certification will be on the original copy of the 
invoice. \ ■ « 1 

(9) Certifications will appear signed On each copy of the 
invoice. 

(10) Surcharges, i.e., postage, insurance, carrying fee, etc., 
cannot be paid when shown as a separate amount. 

(11) Purchase tax must be shown as a separate amount. 
When this tax is shown, the following certification" must be 
personally signed by an official of the firm. "I certify that trie 
supplies and equipment for which purchase tax is shown was 
furnished from untaxed stocks; that this Company is directly 
accountable to H.M. Customs and Excise for the purchase tax on 
goods for which it is shown." No. of purchase tax registration 
certificate 

FOR THE CHIEF OF SPECIAL SERVICE : 

THEODORE A. SIEDLE, - 
Lt. Colonel, AC, 
Executive Officer. 



SUPPLIES. 

Requisition the supplies which you feel your unit needs, but 
bear in mind that equitable distribution of the available total of 
supplies in the Theater may, in some cases, provide you with less 
than you've requested. For your information, there follows a 
listing of Special Service supplies and services in the ETO. The 
listing includes the bases of issue. Again, it should be borne in 
mind that each basis is subject to adjustment" downward or 
upward in accordance with the flow of supplies into the Theater.' 



59 



SUPPLIES T/BA. 

1. Athletic and Recreation "A" Kit ; issued on the basis of 
twelve (12) kits for 1,000 men, or one (1) kit for each company of 
126 men, or two (2) kits for companies with a strength in excess 
of 126 men. Weight per kit when packed approximates 230 pounds 
and occupies 10.5 cubic feet. 



Item Quantity 

Soccer Ball ' ... . . .... . . 1 

Soccer Ball Bladder . . 1 

Softballs .. .. .. .. ..12 

First Baseman's Mitt . . .... 1 

Fielder's "Gloves— 2 left-handed .. .. 9 

Catcher's Mask .. .. .. .. .. 1 

Volleyballs .. .. .. .. .3 

Volleyball Nets .. ... .,3 

Volleyball Bladder .. .. .. ... 1 

Boxing "Training- Gloves, 14-oz. or 16 oz. . . 3 (sets) 

Footballs . .. .. .. .. .. 2 

Football Bladder . . .... . . 1 

Catcher's Mitt .. .. .. .. • .. 1 

Catcher's Body Protector .. ..1 

Baseballs .. .. .. .... 12 

Baseball Bats . . . . . . . . . 4 

Softball Bats .. .. .. ..4 

Inflator . . • . . . . . . . . . 1 

Badminton Set . . . . .... .. 1 . 

Shuttlecocks . . . . . . . . 12 

Cribbage Sets .. .. ., .. ..4 

Checker Sets .. .. ..~ .. .. 4 

Pinochle. Decks . . . . . . 12 

Playing Cards . . . . . . . . . . 24 

■ Backgammon Set . . . . . . " . . 1 

Domino Sets . . . . . . . . 8 

Bingo Sets .. .. .. .. . . 2 

Tarcheesi Game .. .. .. .. ..1 

Horseshoe Set . . .. .. .. '. . 1 

Table Tennis Sets . . . . . • . . 2 

Table Tennis Balls . . . . .7 . . 36 



2. Radio-Phonograph "B" Kits ; issued on the basis of six (6) 
for 1,000 men, or one (1) for" a company. Weight per kit when 
packed approximates 220 pounds and occupies 10.5 cubic feet. 
"B" Kits, in the very near future will no- longer be available for 
issue. Radios and phonographs have been requisitioned as 
substitutes and will be issued on the basis of one radio and one 
phonograph for each 150 men in lieu of "B" Kits. 

Teh Inch Records . . . . . . .120 

Standard Record Album (Ten Inch Size) ... 10 
QB-6 Radio Receiver (Battery operated), including 
1 extra set of tubes and 15 packages of green 
shank chromium needles (6 per package) 
with antenna materials, etc. . . .. 1 



:60 



Battery Packs O replacement .. .. 2 

Spring Wound Turntable ' •• •• 1 

Packing and Packing Case, etc., Inside dimensions 
15" deep, 21" wide, and 45" long, with special 
case for records and albums, etc. . . . . 1 

"Musical Equipment : 

Harmonicas ^ . . , . . 6 

Books : 

Paper bound, fiction .. s . . .. ..100 

Army Song, without music .. . . . . 7 

Army Song, with music . . . . . . 3 



3. Books are issued in sets known as "L'^Kits. There are ten 
types of "L" Kits available in the Theater. These are library 
books. There are three series : L.l to L.6 inclusive, Fiction and 
General Reading; L.7 to L.9 inclusive, Reference Books ; L.10, 
Self-Teaching Materials. 

(a) In general the basis oi issue of Fiction and General 
Reading materials is one book to four men. 

(b) The basis of issue of Reference Books is one book to 
ten men. 

(c) Following is a description of each kit ; 

FICTION AND J GENERAL READING. 

" L.l." Approximately 180 titles— assorted fiction and general 
reading. This kit contains paper covered books pocket size 
prepared by the Council on Books in War Time, and are known 
as Council Books. Thirty titles of popular books are selected 
each month and published as series "A," " B," " C," etc. One 
series of these 30 titles is known as a set of Council Books. 
Each " L.l " Kit contains six sets of Council Books. Basis of issue 
is one Council Book for. four men each month as the succeeding 
series becomes available. Requisitions should be made for any 
portion of an "L.l" Kit, but not less than 1/6, or 30 books. 
- "L.2." Approximately 35 titles— assorted fiction and general 
reading. This kit is intended -as the minimum issue to units of 
less thah 100 men who do not have access to a Unit or Organiza- 
tion Army Library. 

"L.3." Approximately 160 titles— assorted fiction and general 
reading, inclusive of titles in "L.2" Kit. This kit is, intended as 
minimum issue to units of from 100-300 men who do not have 
access to a Unit or Organization Army Library. 

"L.4." Approximately 200 titles— assorted • fiction and general 
reading, inclusive of titles in "L.3" Kit.. This kit is intended as 
minimum issue for a battalion or analogous organization of 300- 
600 men who do not have access to a Central Organization 
Army Library. 

. "L.5" Approximately 350 titles— assorted fiction and general 
reading, inclusive of titles of "L.4" Kit. This kit is intended as 
minimum issue for a regiment or analogous organization of 600- 
1,000 men who dd not have access to a Central Organization 
Army Library. 



61 



"JLi.6." Approximately 500 titles— assorted fiction and general 
reading, inclusive of titles in " L.5 " Kit. This kit is intended as 
minimum issue to a division or analogous organization of 1,000- 
3,000 men for use as a Central Organization Army Library, or for 
distribution and circulation among subordinate organizations and 
units 

REFERENCE BOOKS. 
"L.7." Approximately 50 titles — selected Reference Books. This 
kit will be issued only to separate units which do not have access 
to "L.8" or "L.9" Kits in Organization Army Libraries and 
where adequate provision is made for the custody and lending of 
such books. Requisitions must indicate how books will be used 
and circulated. Priority will be given to isolated units and 
hospitals. 

" L.8." Approximately 300 titles — selected Reference Books, 
inclusive of titles in "L.7 ; " Kit. This . kit v will be issued to 
organisations which have a Central Organization Army Library 
and provide a full-time librarian. Priority will be given to 
hospitals. 

" L.9." . Approximately 400 titles — selected Reference Books, 
inclusive of titles in "L.8" Kit. This kit will be issued only to a 
division or analogous organization headquarters having a Central 
Organization Army Library and to hospitals will full-time 
librarians. 

SELF-TEACHING MATERIALS. 
" L.10." Self -Teaching Materials, including High School and 
College Textbooks in a variety of subjects. This kit will be issued 
for display purposes to .any Special Service or Education Officer 
for use in counseling officers and enlisted men about opportunities 
for individual and group study in off-duty time. Requisitions 
should' be addressed to Commandant, ETO Branch, USAFI, HQ, 
SOS-, APO 871, U.S. Army, with the following certification type- 
written at the end of requisition : 

" I certify that the, above books will be used for display 
purposes only." 



RECREATIONAL EQUIPMENT 
Class IV Supplies 

Item 



Badminton, complete . . 

Presses, racquet 

Racquets . . 

Shuttlecocks 
Boards, checker & chess 
Boards, cribbage 
Dart Board Games . . 
Cards, pinochle 
Cards, playing ... 
Checkers . ; 
Chessmen 



Basis of Issue 
per 150 men 

1 set. 

Replacement 
Replacement 
8 ea. 
5 ea. 

15 decks 
30 decks 

5 sets 

3 sets 



62 



Item 

Dice 

Dominoes . . 
Radios 

Snooker, table complete 
Balls 
Butts 

Chalk, cue . . 
Cues 

Glue, cue tip 
Rests, cue . . 
Tips, cue 
Table Tennis, w/o table 
Balls, replacements 
Bats 

Clamps, net . 

Nets 

Tables 



Item 

Baseball: 

Balls . . 

Bases 

Bats 

Gloves, fielders for l.h. 

„ r.h. 
Leg guard, catchers 
Masks, catchers 
Mitts, catchers 
Mitts, first base for l.h. 

» r.h. 

Plates, home 
•Plates, pitchers 
Protectors, body catchers. 

Basketball: 

Backboards 

Balls 

Baskets 

Bladders . . . 
Boxing: 

Mouthpieces ... 
Bags, punching, heavy- 
Bags, punching, light 
Gloves, 8 oz. 
Gloves, 14 oz. 
Gloves, 16 oz. 
Headguards 



Basis of Issue 
Per 150 men 
12 ea. 
10 sets 
1 per 100 
men 

1 ea. 



Replacement 



2 sets 

3 doz. 

Replacement 

1 ea. 

Basis of Issue 
per 1,500 men 

6 doz. 
9-ea. 
6 doz. 
108 ea. 
30 ea. 
6 prs, 



ea. 
ea. 
ea. 
ea. 
ea. 
ea. 
ea. 



4 ea. 
18 ea. 

4 ea. 
18 ea. 



6 ea. 
12 ea. 
12 sets 
18 sets 
18 sets 
12 ea. 



63 



Basis of 'Issue 

. Item per 1,500 men 

Mitts, punching . .. .. .. 6 prs. 

Pads, knuckle, punching .... .. .. 6 prs. 

Rings (equipment only) . . . . . . 1 ea. 

Ropes, skipping ..- . . . . . . 12 ea. 

Sponges, wiping .. . . .. .. 4 doz. 

Swivels, punchbag ... . , . . . . 12 ea. 

Wraps; hand .'. .. .. , .. 1 doz. 

Football: 

Balls . . . . . . . . . . 18 ea. 

• Bladders, replacement . . .. .. 18 ea. 

Cleats . . . . . . 

Goal posts .. .. .. .. .. On request 

Wrenches, cleat .. .. .. .. 

Inflators .. ... ... ..- .. 5 ea. - 

Mats, wrestling .. .. . . .. 2 sets 

Shoes: 

Baseball . . . . . . 

Basketball ....... On request 

Canvas, rubber soled, low quarter . . . . as 

Football . . . . . . available 

Rugby .i, K .. .. .. ' v 

Track . . .... 

Soccer: 

Balls . . . . . . . . . . 12 ea. 

Bladders . . . . . . . . 18 ea. 

Soft Ball: - 

Balls ".. . . . . 12 doz. 

- Bases . . . . . . . . . . 9 ea. 

Bats . . . . . . . . . . 6 doz. 

Gloves, fielders for l.h. . . . . . . 126 ea. 

* „ „ „ r.h. . . . . . . 36 ea. 

Masks, catchers .. .. .. .. 6 ea. 

Mitts, catchers (use mitts, first base) .. 6 ea. 

Mitts, first base for l.h. .. .. .. 5 ea. 

» » » „ r.h. . . .... 1 ea. 

Plates, home .. .. .. ... 4 ea.^ 

Plates, pitchers . . ' . . . . . . 4 ea. 

Protectors, body, catchers .... . . 6 ea- 

Squash: 

Balls . . . . . . " 2 doz. 

Racquets . . s . . .. .. . . 1 doz. 

Supporters, athletic ' . . . . . . . . 3 gros 



Track and Field: 

Boards, take-off, broad jump 
Handles; hammer, spare 



64 



Item 

Hammers, throwing 
Lathes, jumping 
Shots, putting 
Standards, high jump 
Tennis rackets 
Tennis balls 
Tennis nets 

Uniforms arid Clothing: 

Caps, baseball 
Hose, baseball 
Hose, football 
Jerseys, basketball 
Jerseys, football 
Pants, baseball 
Shirts, baseball 
Shirts, basketball 
Shirts, polo 
Shirts, rugby 
Shorts, basketball or track 
Trunks, swimming . . 

Volleyball: 
Balls .. 
Bladders, replacements 
Nets 

Standards, net 



Basis of Issue 
per 1,500 men 

Oh request 

as 

available 

30 ea. 
15 doz. 
8 ea. 



On request 
as 

available 



12 ea. 
12 ea. 
12 ea. 
6 pr.. 



EDUCATION EQUIPMENT 



Books: 

Fiction and General subjects, 
• including Victory & Penguin 
books . . 

Special subjects, including geo- 
graphy, history, biography, 
political science, government 
science, religion, psychology, 
atlas, dictionary, etc., necessary 
for Education Program 

Linguaphone textbooks 



Linguaphone Group Leader's In- 
struction Guide 

Textbooks, including self-teaching 
materials of USAFI .. 



-Basis of Issue 



1 book to 4 men 



1 book to 50 men 



1 set of 3 textbooks for each 
man for' each language 
studied. 

1 booklet per leader per 
language (included with 
records). 

1 set of textbooks, including 
textbooks and workbook 
for each man ior each sub- 
ject studied. 



65 



Item 

Blackboards: 
Portable, roll, cloth with painted 
surface 
Crayon: , . 
White crayon for blackboard use 
Colored assorted crayon for black- 
board use . . 
Gramophones: 
Portable gramophone 



Linguaphone Needles : 
Special 40-minute needles 

Linguaphone Records-: 
French — 16 double, faced records 



German 

Spanish 

Italian 

Jtussian 

Norwegian 

Polish 

Portuguese 



ditto 
ditto 
ditto 
ditto 
ditto 
ditto 
ditto 



American-English ditto 



Orientation Materials 

Magazines, Unit Set 

Maps and Charts : 
"Map Review" (ABCA) 
"Newsmap" (US) 

Pamphlets : 
"Army Talks" 



" Guide to Great Britain " 
Informative Pamphlets on different 
cities and towns of Great Britain, 
prepared by the British Council 
USAFI Courses : 
USAFI Application blanks : 

No. 1 .. .. .. 

No. 2 . . 



Basis of Issue. 



1 blackboard for 250 men. 

1 gross for 50 men. 

1 gross for 250 men. 

1 gramophone for each 10 to 
100 men. (See SOS letter 
AG 350.03, 9 Apr 1943.) 
MSS "Instructions for 
Requisitioning and using 
Linguaphone Equipment." 

500 needles for each man 
studying languages. 

1 set of records for 10 to 100 
men for each language 
studied. 

ditto 
ditto 
ditto 
ditto 
ditto 
ditto 
ditto 
ditto 

(See SOS letter, AG' 350.03 

9 April 1943 MSS) 

(Instructions for Requistion- 
ing and using Lingua- 
phone Equipment) 

1 set to 150 men 

1 set to 150 men 

1 Map Review for 100 men 
1 Map for 100 men 

1 Pamphlet for each leader 
of informal discussion, or 
roughly 1 pamphlet for 
30 men 

I j pamphlet for each man. 
1 pamphlet for each man. 



1 blank for each man 
1 blank for each man 



66 



Item Basis of Issue 

USAFI Catalogue .. .. 1 Catalogue for each 100 

See "L.10" Kit, page 62 
Policy and Information Letters 
on request from Commandant, 
ETO Branch USAFI, HQ, 
SOS, APO 871 

MUSICAL EQUIPMENT. 

Books, Army Song, w/music . . 1 per organization 
Books, Army Song, w/o music . . 1 per 10 men 
(Song Books should be kept in the 

hands of the SS Officer when 

not in use) 

Instruments, Musical : 

Accordions . . • • • • - 

Bassoons 

Brushes, drum 

Cellos 

Cornets 

Cymbals . . . . 

Flutes • - . . 

French Horns 
Glockenspiels .". 
Heads, -drum .. .. 

Horns, Alto 

Guitars . . .... 

Harmonicas .. .. ,. On request as available 

Mallets, Xylophone .... 

Mutes, Trombone assorted 
Mutes, Trumpet assorted 
Ocarinas (various keys) 
Oboes . . . . . . 

Pianos .... .... 

Piccoloes . . . . " . . 

Sticks, drum . . . . . 

Tonettes . . . . . . 

Trombones, slide . . . . 

' Trumpets . . . ... 

Tubas . . . . 

Ukeleles 

Violas 

Violins 

Xylophones . . . . . 

Item Basis of Issue 

Phonograph, hand wound 
Records, phonograph, classical 

sets of 25) . . 
Records, phonograph, popular 

sets of 25) .. 

67 



. . 1 each per 150 men 
(in 

.. 1 set per day room 
(in 

. . Replacement 



DAYROOM 



FURNITURE. 

. . i per 150 men 
. . . 3 per 150 men 
3 per 150 men 
25 per 150 men 

2 per 150 men 

3 per 150 men 
3 per 150 men 
2 per 150 men 
2 per 150 men 
2 per 150 men 



Bookcase . . 
Chairs, easy - 
Chairs, fireside 
Chairs, folding 
Cushions, settee 
Lamps, floor 
Lamps, table 
Settees 
Tables, card 
Tables, writing 

" THEATRICAL EQUIPMENT. 

Kits, make-up . . .. . . On request as available. 

Public Address Systems .. 1 per 2,000 men. 

Scripts — a limited number of review 
sketches skits and minstrel shows On request as available, 
are available A list of these will . 
be published as soon as sufficient 
•supply is .available for distribu- 
tion .... . . 

Projectors, :16mm .. " ,. 1 per 1,500 men. 

Stages : 

Class "A" — (Items in. a Class "A" Theater) (Nissen Huts — 
Small Barracks) 

1— Stage to be installed 10' 0" deep x 20' 0" wide'x 3' 0" 

high ■ • "* 

2— Striplights 12' 0"_long (two 6' 0" strips) 
2--Front Spotlights (500 wt,) 

1— Border 12' deep x 20' 0" wide 

1 — Draw Curtains T O" high x 20' 0" wide 

1 — Wood Traveler Track 20' 0" long 

4— Legs 7' 0" high x 5' 0" wide 

1— Backdrop 7' 0" high x 20' 0" wide . 

Class. "B"— (Items in a Class "B" Theater) (Mess Halls- 
Small Gymnasium) 

1— Stage to be installed 10' 0" deep x 20' 0" wide x 3' .0" 
. * high , 

2 — Striplights 12' 0" long (two 6' 0" strips) 
2— Front -Spotlights (500 wt.) 

1— Border 18" deep x 20' 0" wide ' 

1— Border 2' 0" deep x 20' 0" wide 

1 — Draw Curtain 7' 0" high x 20' 0" wide - 

1— Wood Traveler Track 20' 0" long 

4 — Legs 7' 0" high x 4' 0" wide 

1— Backdrop 7' 0" high x 20' 0" wide 

2— Booerang Lights (3 Reflectors on a stanchion) 

CLASS "C"— (Items in a Class "C" Small Garrison Theater) 
The Post will have to build their own stage platform and 
proscenium to suit their building. - 
The ideal stage is 17' 0" deep x 30' 0" wide x 3' 0" high 
with a proscenium opening 24' 0" wide x 9' 0" high. 



68 



1— Stoplight for Foots 18' 0" long (three 6' 0" units) 

2— Overhead Stoplights 18' 0" long ( ditto. ) 

1 — Border 2- 6" deep x 24' 0" wide 

2— Borders 2' 6" deep x 26' 0" wide 

2 — Draw Curtains 9' 0" high x 26' 0" wide 
2— Steel Traveler Tracks 26' 0" long 
2 — Legs 9' 0" high x 4' 0" wide 
2— Legs. 9' 0" high x 6' 0" wide 

1— Backdrop 9' 0" high x 26' 0" wide (6' 0" long ea.) 

2— Vertically mounted stoplights (on stanchions 3 circuits) 

1— Switchboard (with dimmers for two circuits and spotlights) 

2— Spotlights (500 wt.) 

Stages should be- requisitioned by those units which expect to 
be located in a permanent installation. Units smaller than 
divisions should not request portable stage equipment with an 
idea of carrying it with them at some future date. 



Restricted 
Headquarters . 
European Theater of Operations 

United States Army RPF/HET/emj 

APO 887 

AG 353.8 OpGD ' .13 May 1944 

SUBJECT: Recreational Equipment' and Supplies. 
TO: Commanding Generals: 

First US Army Group 

US Strategic Air Forces in Europe 

Each Army, ETOUSA 

European Wing, Air Transport Command '.. 
Base Section Commanders, SOS, ETOUSA 
. Commanding Officers: - 

European Airways Communications Area 
Military Intelligence Service, ETOUSA 
Commandant, American School Center 
Headquarters Commandant's, ETOUSA, APO 887 & 871 

1. Letter, this headquarters, dated 19 April 1944, file AG 353.8 
OpGD, subject: Recreational Equipment Left by Units Moving 
out of the UK, and letter, Headquarters, SOS ETOUSA, dated 31 
July 1943, file 400.SS, subject: Special Service Equipment' and 
Supplies, are rescinded. 

2. Special service equipment and supplies to be salvaged or 
'those considered excess, will be properly marked and shipped 
to the nearest special service depot unless otherwise directed by 
the base section , special service officer. In either case, the base 
section special service officer will be contacted concerning the 
recovery and disposal of special service equipment and supplies. 
^ 3. The special service depot supply officer, receiving equipment 
and/or supplies will classify them as: 

a. » Class "A" equipment (new or unused equipment) . 

b. Class "B" equipment (used but serviceable equipment). 

c. Class "C" equipment (needing repair). - 

d. Salvage equipment (beyond repair — must! be turned in 
to the nearest salvage officer) 

69 



4. The depot supply officer receiving salvage equipment will 
retain any parts usable in the repair of Class "C" equipment 
'keeping a bin card of such parts. Class "B" equipment will be 
issued m preference to Class "A" equipment. Class "C" equip- 
ment, after being repaired and returned in a serviceable condition 
to the depot for storage, will be classified as Class "B" eauit)- 
ment. , * 

5. a. Base section special service officers will keep records to 
reflect at all times a comprehensive status of special service 
equipment and/or supplies being used by SOS and Field Force 
troops within the base section. Such records will show location, 
condition, and employment of special service equipment and/or 
supplies. - • 

b. . Headquarters, US Strategic Air Forces in Europe, will 
be responsible for 'maintenance of similar records for Air Force 
installations. 

6. 16mm moving picture projector equipment issued by, or on 
recommendation of, Special Service Division, this headquarters, 
on a non-T/E basis, will be considered organizational equipment. 

7. The f ollowing special service equipment will be regarded as 
post, camp., and station property: 

a. 35mm motion picture projector equipment. 

b. Billiard, snooker, and pool tables. 

c. Pianos. 

d. Dayroom furniture. 

e. Stages and stage fixtures. 
/. Boxing rings. 

8. TIB A Equipment, a. "A" Kit— Military sports and games 
kit, containing equipment for major sports and assorted games. 
These are issued on the basis of twelve (12) kits for 1,000 men, 
or one (l) kit for each company of 126 men, and two (2) kits 
for companies with a strength in excess of 126 men. Weight per 
kit when packed approximates 230 pounds and occupies 10.5 cubic 
feet. 

b. "B" Kit — Military phonograph kit, containing a radio, 
phonograph (78 and 33 r.p.m. usable with or without electricity), 
records, and books. These are issued on the basis of six (6) for 
1,000 men or one (1) for a company. Weight per kit when packed 
approximates 220 pounds and occupies 10.5 cubic feet. 

c. Where "A" and "B" kits are not available, bulk equip- 
ment issued in lieu thereof j will be considered organisational 
equipment. 

d. Special Service Company Table of Equipment No. 28-17, 
2 April 1943. 

9. Recreational equipment which is owned by a unit by virtue 
of specific gift or purchase from its own funds will be considered 
organizational equipment. 

By command of General EISENHOWER: 

RICHARD P. FISK, 
Lt. Colonel, A.G.D., 
Assistant Adjutant General 



70 




NEWSMAP HOLDER FROM SCRAP WOOD, CASTER, HINGES. 

A diagram of a novel Newsmap holder made from salvage 
materials is reproduced above. It can hold several Newsmaps, 
readily referred to on either side of back issues as well && the 
current one. 

Used successfully in the States, it offers many features, one 
that it may easily be dismantled and carried from one building 'to 
another for lectures or informal discussions, lit may also be used 
on top ofi filing icabinets in the library, or on the piano in the 
dayroom. 

Reports from the field indicate its use is varied, and 'that men 
frequently spend their time mulling over the map, due to its easy 
accessibility. It's a distinct improvement on the old method of 
tacking Newsmaps to the wall, which only allows one side to be 
seen at a time. , 

By no means is 'this the only way they should be posted. As 
soon as Newsmaps are . received they should, be put up anywhere 
where the men can study them at their leisure. The news side 
should first be displayed. A week later the previous weeks' should 
be reversed and posted. 

The model above (lower left) was constructed in less than an 
hour from scrap lumber, one old chair caster, two hinges (1 in. by 
1 in.) and some nails. . 



71 



SPECIFIC FACTQRS IN MORALE : THE FACTS AND FIGURES. 

Two years' research in the Army has done much to take the 
subject of morale out of the field of "intangibles" and bring it 
down to concrete facts. Considered from the standpoint of action 
— what can be done about it — morale can be analyzed into par- 
ticular attitudes which in turn can be made the object of 
definite and practical actions. 

The next few pages give some important facts about a few of. 
the many specific factors related to morale. 
Variations in Morale : 

Do outfits differ in morale? Consistent evidence from many 
surveys confirms common observation in emphasizing the 
importance of variations in men's attitudes from one unit to 
another. For example ... how pride in outfit differs from one 
company to another within the same infantry regiment is shown 
by the chart below. • 

Percentage of men who express PRIDE IN THEIR COMPANY 

O 25 " 50 75 100 



Similar variations in general morale and in fighting spirit have 
been found again and again among outfits in the various arms 
and services. 

Army Leadership ; 

Why these striking differences? The reasons are, of course, as 
numerous and varied as the circumstances under which troops 
live, work, and fight. But whatever the special conditions of the 
moment, the influence of Army leadership is crucial in the morale 
as well as in matters of technical training and tactical operations. 



72 



Military axiom : Morale is a function of command. Through 
Army leadership come influences which can make or break 
morale. Because this is so, it is not surprising— but nevertheless 
vitally important — to find clear evidence that soldiers' confidence 
in their leaders is closely tied' up with the seven specific morale 
factors described in Chapter 16, pages 43 to 46. 

Surveys of our troops give striking evidence, for example, that 
men's respect for their leaders is closely related to a belief in 
the Army's concern for the welfare of the individual. 



BELIEF IN THE ARMY'S CONCERN FOR 
INDIVIDUAL WELFARE IS RELATED 
TO RESPECT FOR LEADERS 

, Among Men whose Respect 

for Leaders is : 
^ Least Medium Most 



Percentage with ... 

Highest Belief in Army's 
Concern for Welfare 



Medium Belief in Army's 
Concern for Welfare 



Lowest, Belief in Army's 
Concern for Welfare 




Similar relatipns exist between confidence in leaders and many, 
other specific attitudes such as confidence in training and equip- 
ment, belief in the outfit's mission, feeling about fairness of 
promotion. 

73 



Belief in Importance of the Mission : 

If a soldier believes, rightly or wrongly, that his job is not 
important, -that what he is doing will not matter, much in the 
total war picture, or that he is made to spend a considerable 
portion of his time performing meaningless and non-essential 
tasks, then we can expect him to have low morale, to lack pride 
in his outfit, lack confidence in his leaders, and to fail to put into 
his job the enthusiasm and energy which make for the efficient 
soldier. 

Yet a considerable proportion of men surveyed say that they 
feel what they are doing is not worthwhile. What are the factors 
which determine whether men ~have the essential convictions that 
they are engaged in an important, worthwhile mission or activity? 
Obviously a service outfit stationed at an isolated base in an 
inactive theater presents a different set of problems than does a 
combat outfit in or near a zone of active operations. For example, 
research findings indicate the following proportions of men in 
different organizations who say they feel that what they are doing 
is worthwhile : 



. . , Air Force ground crews 
servicing planes 

. . . Infantrymen in" a division 
recently out of combat 

... Air Force ground troops 
not actually working on planes 

... Service troops (not Air 
Force) in the same theater 

. ■•• . Infantrymen in a division 
that had spent a long time in 
an inactive area 

Within a given type of organization in a particular location, 
men's confidence that what they are doing is important and worth- 
while will depend in part on the type of specific job they are 
doing. 

1. Type of Assignment : 

Men who say that their job utilizes their abilities and training 
are more likely than other men to express confidence in their 
officers, to say that they work hard at their jobs and to feel that 
what they are doing is worthwhile. For example : 

Among men who feel that 21% of the men show 
nothing at all has been done to confidence in their leader- 
place them where they best fit ship 
in the Army . . . . 



Percentage of men who say they 
feel that what they are doing 
in the Army is worthwhile : 

1 78% | 

1 69% j 

| , 63% | 

| 58% | 

I 43% I 



74 



WHILE 

Among men who feel, that 65% of the men show 
everything possible has been confidence in their leader- 
done to place them where they ship 
best fit in the Army .... 

These findings; and others not reported here, demonstrate the 
importance of careful attention to cases of possible misclassifica- 
tion and misassignment. Naturally, every effort should be made 
to effect the transfer of misassigned men to jobs for which they 
are better fitted. But even where transfer is impossible, a careful 
hearing of the case can help to convince the soldier that every- 
thing possible is being done, and in some instances explaining 
to him the importance of the job he is doing will help to "sell" 
him on his present assignment. 

The officer genuinely concerned with seeing that his men are 
-efficiently put into jobs at which they do best may well, ask 
himself the following questions. 

(a) Do you keep a systematic record of special skills of the 
men in your outfit? 

(b) Do you make use of such men when the situation calls 
for such skills? 

(c) Do you make it a point to get suggestions from your men 
on practical improvements that can be made regarding 
their Jobs, and put the best suggestions into effect? 

(d) Do you make a practice of giving men personal respon- 
sibility for particular jobs and holding them to it? 

2. Telling Men What the Score Is : 

Men's belief in the importance of their particular assignment 
or mission is closely related to the extent to which they feel 
they understand the reasons for what they are doing and why 
they are required to do things the way they are. Explanation of 
the purpose of doing a particular job in a particular way pays 
dividends in terms of effort and zeal which men put into their 
tasks. 

The importance"* of knowing why is stressed in par 21 FM 21-50 : 
"Nothing irritates American soldiers so much as to be left in 
the dark regarding the reason for things." 

Yet a sergeant, veteran of one of the hardest campaigns of the 
war, had this specific criticism to make of battle leadership : 
"Most always we were not told what the score is, which is 
the one thing all men want to know." 

Contrasts in the way officers in different units handle the 
problem of giving reasons for orders are illustrated by the 
following two quotations from interviews with enlisted men : 
In one unit: "When you get an order the CO. just says, 'Do 
it, because I say do it,' and never would give us a reason." 
In another unit: "We all know our job's important ... Of 
course we . all have to do a lot of the same things as any 
company, but he (the CO.) always tells us the reason they 
have to be done, so a lot of things don't seem unnecessary 
which probably would if he didn't tell us why." 



75 



It is sometimes maintained that experienced soldiers either do 
not need or are not interested in being told the reasons for what 
they are ordered to .do. Research evidence, however, . fails to 
bear out this point of view. A survey of attitudes of enlisted men, 
for instance, showed that: 
Of men who said only two men in 
they were usually ' every ten said that 
too many of the 
things they .nad to 
do , seemed un- 
necessary, ' . 



or always told the 
reasons for what 
they had to do, 



and 8 men in 10 
said they were 
proud of their 
company or battery. 



Of men who re- 
ported they were 
usually not told the 
reasons for things, 



BUT - 

6 men in 10 said 
too many things 
seemed unneces- 
sary, 



and only 4 men in 
10 said they were 
proud of their com- 
pany or battery. 



The officer concerned with making sure that his men "know 
what the score is, may well ask himself the following questions: 
: (a) Within the limits of security do you make sure that the 
men in your outfit are told the reasons for the things 
they do? 

(b) Do you avoid giving your men meaningless busy-work, as 
a mere indicator of discipline or on the theory of keeping 
them out- of mischief? 

SHOWING PERSONAL INTEREST IN MEN'S WELFARE 
That . the first concern of an officer is to look after his men's 
personal welfare is standard military doctrine. Less often realized 
is the need for leaders to show. the men by word and act that they 
do have a genuine personal interest in the men's welfare. 

What are some of the specific ways in which successful officers 
make apparent their concern for the men's welfare? Here are 
some of the things that are found, to characterize outfits in which 
morale is low, according to the men themselves! 

"The CO. inspects to see that there isn't a dust spot on 
anything ; buttons shine just so . . . but for three or four weeks 
some of us were sleeping without mattresses. They never 
think to inspect for something important like that." 
" Just as long as we are getting three meals a day it don't 
-l, matter to the CO. what they are like. He says we're lucky to 
be here getting three meals a day." 

The opposite picture, characteristic of "high morale," is 
illustrated by the following quotations : 

"The captain told the cooks he wanted to have the best food 
possible for his men. If they didn't want to work and furnish 
that kind of meals, he'd put them out in the field and get some 
cooks that would." 

"It's pretty cold down on the job. We had been authorized 
mackinaws, but they had. been held up somewhere. The captain 
got busy and chased them down . . . If we need something, he 
don't waste any time; going after it for us." 



76 



The importance of men's realizing their officers' interest in their 
welfare is illustrated by the following chart: 



RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ANSWERS OF ENLISTED 
MEN TO TWO QUESTIONS ON OFFICERS 

Question: "How many of your officers take a personal 
interest in their men?" 

Question : " How many of the officers in your company are 
the kind you would want to serve under in 
combat? " 



Among ... 

men who say all or most 
of their officers take a 
personal interest in their 
men 



men who say about half 
of their officers .take a 
personal interest in their 
men 



men who say few or 
none of their officers 
take a personal interest 
in their men 



The data charted above are for infantrymen who with their 
officers have had extended combat experience. In other types 
of outfits surveyed — whether they are infantrymen, service troops 
in rear echelons, or air corps ground crews readying planes for 
combat— the . units in which men. say their officers really show 
concern in the men's welfare are the ones in which most men 
respect their officers, express pride in their outfits, and report 
that most men really "put out" on the job instead of doing just 
enough to " get by." 

Little, things can make a big difference. The kinds of meals 
men are given, attention to fatigue and provision for rest, knowing 
the men's names, giving recognition when a good job is done, 
explaining the reason for things, attention to ills — real or imaginary 
—are the kind of day-by-day details which are important! They 
are so not only in themselves but because they appear to the 
soldier as evidence of his leader's concern or lack of concern for 
his welfare. This point is particularly important among combat 

77 



Percentage who say that all or 
most of the Officers in their Com- 
pany are the kind they would want 
to serve under in Combat. 



80% 




soldiers. Men who are fighting or working under conditions of 
hardship are quick to resent indications, small or large, that their 
efforts are not appreciated, that they are being called on to do a 
tough job but forgotten as individuals. Research findings con- 
sistently bear out the principle which military leaders of all ages 
have made the basis of successful leadership : In sum total, the 
little things which evidence concern for men's welfare can mean 
the difference between good and poor morale in an outfit. 

The company officer who wishes to check himself as to whether 
he is doing a good job with respect to the men's personal welfare 
can ask himself such questions as these : 

(a) Do you know the name of every man in your outfit? 

(b) Do you eat with your men in their mess often enough so 
that you know whether they are getting the best, food 
possible under the circumstances? 

(c) Do you make your inspections as practical as possible, 
stressing items which the men feel are important for their 
welfare and paying less attention to details of little 
significance to them? 

(d) Especially for troops recently out of combat, do you see 
that adequate provision is made for their rest, relaxation, 
and opportunities to clean up, write home, and other minor, 
but to them, important things? 

REWARDS „ AND PUNISHMENTS 

Certain attitudes such as confidence in leaders, pride in outfit, 
and fighting spirit are mental states which every commander 
wants to see among his men. 

Other attitudes, not always so easily recognised as important, 
must be fostered because of their relation to desirable end- 
products in morale. 

For example, men's feeling that in their outfit a man gets 
recognition for doing a particularly good job is closely tied up 
with pride in outfit, as is shown in the chart that follows. 

Among men who report that in Percentage of men expressing 

their outfit a man gets recogni- pride in their company or 

tion for doing a particularly good battery . . . (survey of an in- 
job ... fantry division in ETO) 



Always " or " Usually " | 86% 



: Rarely " . . I 69% 



Never " . . . . . . I 57% 



It is an old principle that still works : a positive approach is 
better than a negative approach m bringing out men's best efforts. 



78 



In soldiers' own words, here are some reactions to practices 
found in "low" and "high" morale outfits. In low morale units: 

"None of our officers give a damn about us — the CO told us 
he didn't. You never hear that you've done a good job, it's 
always a d poor job everything is wrong." 

" Overseas the CO's and other ranking officers have tendency 
to ' forget ' their E.M., that latter need more advice and 
leadership than ever." 
In high morale outfits : 

"We get credit for what we do — good or bad .Our Lt is the 
best company commander in ETO and should be promoted." 

"When a man gets punished for something you know he 
deserves it. Our officers are very strict but we don't have a 

lot of chicken s like what you hear about in some outfits." 

The wise officer may well check himself with such questions 
as the following: 

(a) Do you make your penalties sufficiently tough to discourage 
the repetition of an act, 'but not out of all proportion to the 
offense so that it seems unfair to the offender and the 
other men? 

(b) Do you personally compliment a man when he has done 
a particularly good job? 

(c) Do you give individual punishment for individual offenses 
rather than penalize the whole company for the misdeeds 
of one or two men? 

Surveys show what the GI likes. Surveys on sports and 
athletics have been made but are omitted here due to space 
limitations. Specific research findings on other points follow. 
Movies. ,. 

In the, United States, in the Pacific, and in ETO, surveys have 
consistently shown that movies are the soldier's favorite off-duty 
activity. In England, dances and stage shows are second and 
third choices as evening activities. 
Singing. 

Source: Cross section of enlisted men in Continental United 
States. . 

Seven out of every eight soldiers say they like to sing. Most 
of the men prefer to sing with a few fellows, while community 
singing trails in popularity, and organized glee clubs appeal to 
only about one-tenth of the men. ' 

The latest hit tunes and Army marching songs and service songs 
run neck and neck for first place in soldiers' favcr. Popular songs 
of the last 25 years are also popular, while only a quarter of the 
men name patriotic songs among their three favorite types of 
songs. Least popular of all among soldiers are folk songs, hill 
billy songs, and church songs. 
Books : 

Among men surveyed in England the favorite types of books 
are recent novels of the "best seller" type £tnd mystery and 
detective novels. Nonfiction and the classics are favored by the 
smallest proportion of the soldiers. 



79 



Orientation : 

Enlisted men not only recognize the need for orientation; they 
also want it and appreciate receiving it. However, only one in 
four of the enlisted men says he has a fairly up-to-date and 
complete knowledge of the news. "Lack of facilities" is most 
often .blamed by the men for this. 

Six men in ten say they think weekly discussion meetings on 
various subjects connected with the war are "very much worth- 
while" and about four-fifths say the discussion leaders have done 
a good job so far. I Only one man in ten says the meetings are a 
waste of time. Five out of ten men say they prefer having an 
officer as discussion leader, one in seven prefers a noncom as 
leader, and not quite four in ten men say it "makes no difference." 

Post-war plans are ranked a clear first among the topics from 
which enlisted men in recent surveys were asked to select the 
one about which they'd like to know most. 

The desire for news and other orientation is characteristic of 
combat troops as well as of men in rear echelons. For example, 
in a study of infantrymen who fought through the Sicilian 
campaign, three-quarters of the men say they wanted explanation 
of how their company's part fitted into the general plan of 
campaign, and a~ majority believed they could have been better 
informed by their leaders. 



MEN FEEL THEY COULD HAVE BEEN GIVEN MORE 
INFORMATION 

Question : " While you were at the battlef ront, did your 
leaders explain, the whole battle so you could see how your 
company's part fitted into the campaign as a whole? " 

Per cent giving each answer 

Answers 

"As much as they could" 



'They could have given 
us a little more ...... 



"They could have given 
us a great deal more".. 




80 



Problems of communications and considerations of security may- 
limit sharply the company commander's ability to supply this 
type ,of information. It seems clear, however, that men should 
be given as much information as possible to show them that 
their sacrifices have a place in a sound plan which is bringing 
victory closer. It may be possible for the Special Service Officer 
to assemble and clear some information on this subject for 
dissemination by company officers at the front, and it certainly 
should be possible for him to supply such information to the 
companies when they are withdrawn from the front lines. 



NEWS CENTER 

Ingenuity is the Special Service Officer's greatest asset in selling 
ideas to men of his unit. An attractive bulletin board', "news 
corner," or information center invites attention, and radiates ideas 
which would take hours of talking and reams of mimeographed 
material to put across. 

The Special Service Section, Hq. Eighth Air Force, working along 
these lines, has an Orientation Center highlighting many aspects of 
the news, each in a dtiff erent„ way. 

The noom has a "Who is Fighting Who?" display, made up of a 
large-scale map of the world with neutral countries in blue; Allied 
nations in red, and enemy territory in white. "The Italian Battle- 
front" is indicated with map pins, red tape, and red arrows : 
attacks and counter-attacks are shown according to current 
dispatches. 

There is also "The Russian Battlefnont," a large-scale map of 
the Russian line, and "Target: the Hun," which portrays the bomb- 
ing front. A map of Europe is the background for the latter 
scene, with enemy cities marked and small-scale planes with 
strings attached' to take-off points indicating recent bombing raids. 

In addition, there are "A-2 Current News" flashes, a' display of 
Army Talks, and a cornen on "This is the Enemy," pictures and 
.descriptions of the men the Allies are fighting. 

Every SSO' can have a modification of this idea. Large-scale 
maps, if unavailable, can be drawn with the aid of NEWSMAPS, 
and the sketched map is sometimes better for this purpose than 
the professional one. Pins, cut-outs, and front-line markers can 
be improvised bits of colored paper, or paper can be coloned to fit 
the scheme. ^ . 

The Education Officer of Eighth Air Force lists these as the most 
important points: 

There must be a well-lit space; a striking bulletin board (it can 
be improvised from cardboard); necessary arrangements should be 
made with A-2 (G-2 or S-2) for current news dispatches, and the 
officer in charge must keep abreast of all current war develop- 
ments and exercise ingenuity in the use of colors, indicating battle 
lines, bombing targets, and naval actions. 



81 



THE "ORIENTATION CENTER" AND NEWS BULLETIN BOARD 

An "Orientation Center" or News Bulletin Board is nothing more 
or less 'than an Information Display, in which a variety of devices 
are used to build and sustain a daily' interest in the war news. 

The first step in preparing such an orientation center is to select 
a wall with sufficient open floor space around it to accommodate 
small groups without" interfering with the normal recreational 
facilities of such buildings. Such a space is the wall of organiza- 
tion and detachment day rooms and battalion, regimental or group 
recreational halls. 

Next' build a large panel or bulletin board of at least 4 ft. by 
8 ft., and preferably 6 ft. by 11 ft., of materials that will take 
thumb-tacks or pins easily. If no such material is available a 
section of wall space should be used and sectioned off with 
molding, paint or tape, ilf possible, the panel should be painted 
some neutral color, or varnished, so that the materials posted on 
it will stand out in contrast. It should be well lighted. 

This simple installation sets the stage for a daily presentation 
which gives a limitless opportunity for ingenuity and resourceful- 
ness on the part of the organization orientation officer and the 
enlisted men themselves. " • 

An interested, well-qualified enlisted man should be appointed 
by the Organization Commander or Orientation Officer to be in 
charge of the daily maintenance of the displays. 

Three materials should always be employed : 

(a) The Daily News Summary, including late reports taken 
down from' radio reports.. 

(b) The Weekly Newsmap (current and reverse side, and 
clippings from previous issues). 

(c) A world map, or large scale maps of battle fronts. 
Special headings for the displays should be prepared. They 

could be: "LATEST NEWS FROiM RADIO INTELLIGENCE," or 
"NEWS OiF THE WORLD' AT WAR," or "FIGHTING MEN WANT 
FACTS!— Straight Dope from the War Department and Wire 
Services," and "LATEST NEWS Who's Winning the WAR?" Sub- 
heads may be prepared for the- daily News Bulletin and items 
concerning our Allies, Our Enemy and our own f orces. A special 
editorial and cartoon section can be set up, using material from 
TIME, NEWSWEEK, LIFE, YANK, and available newspapers. 

From several of the most important daily news items posted 
under the world map or war theater map colored strings or 
ribbons or tape should be strung to the corresponding location 
on the maps. 

News summaries (using extra copies) should be posted so that 
all sides can be read. They .should be replaced daily, and other 
material changed at least once a week. 

The Post Orientation Officer and Regimental Orientation Officers 
should be responsible for the maintenance of a News Bulletin 
Board in officers' clubs, and at other central locations. 



82 



OFF-DUTY GROUP GLASSES. 

I. The United States Armed Forces Institute through the off- 
duty group classes offers this educational opportunity. An off-duty 
class is made up of a .group of enlisted personnel meeting to- 
gether at scheduled hours to study co-operatively the same sub- 
ject-matter and solve mutual educational problems. Cooperative 
assistance will be given to members of the group through the 
usual classroom procedures such as group discussion, lecture, 
questions and answers, etc. 

II. General Objectives of this Type of Instruction • 

1. To better opportunities for civilian employment after the 

war, with improved economic and cultural status. 

2. To retain and extend knowledge and experiences already 

acquired. 

3. To increase knowledge about current governmental, eco- 

nomic, and social affairs. • 

III. Advantages of Group Classes: 

1. Economy of time. 

2. Varied viewpoints. s 

3. Availability of certain technical materials to the group, but 

not to the individual. 

IV. Leader's Responsibility. 

The off-duty group leader does not necessarily assume the obli- 
gations and traditional responsibilities of a teacher, but serves as 
a coordinator in scheduling classes, in using texts and materials, 
and in administering classroom procedure In addition to being 
an interested class member, concerned with his own educational 
advancement, he should be an example of enthusiasm and sin- 
cerity. In brief, a good leader of an off-duty class is one who is 
keenly interested^ in his own self-improvement as a group 
member, and, in addition, gratuitously serves the class as an ex- 
ecutive. No pedagogical experience is needed for a successful 
group leader. Qualities of cooperativeness, initiative, patience, 
etc., will aid in doing the job well. 

V. Suggestions on Class Procedure. 

1. Introduce the subject matter. 

2. Show enthusiasm. 

3. Recognize our individual differences as to experience and 

needs. 

4. Encourage original thinking. 

5. Keep irrelevant ideas from "sidetracking" points of issue. 

6. Try to keep over-enthusiatic members from, monopolizing 

too much of the class time. 

7. Remember that "learning is activity" and provide proce- 

dures that will allow maximum activity for each person. 

8. Organize a plan for efficiently securing and using texts 

and materials. 

9. Encourage thought-provocative discussions not terminated 

by "Yes" or "No" answers. 
10. Select convenient hours for meetings, not conflicting with 
mess or duty periods. Arrange for a comfortable class- 
room, properly lighted and heated. 



83 



11. Insist that the class meet on regular schedule, and that the 
recommended rate of progress is maintained. 

VI. Enrollment for Credit Record. 

Members of group classes are not required to enroll with the 
Institute. If, however, individual members .desire' to have a record 
made of their accomplishment, they may enroll, apply for the 
end-of -course examination, and pay the required registration- fee 
of two dollars. 

VII. Texts and Materials Needed. 

, Self -teaching texts for off-duty group classes will be furnished 
by the Branch upon receipt of a requisition (QMC Form No. 400) , 
properly signed by the appropriate officer of the using units and 
accompanied by the following statement: "These textbooks are 
to be used for off-duty group instruction of . enlisted personnel." 
The requisition' should be accompanied by a list bearing the name, 
serial number, rank, and organization of each of the individuals 
who will be in the class. 

VIII. Distribution of Sample Set to Special Service or 
Education Officers of all US Forces. 

A sample set of self-teaching texts, such as used in the off-duty 
group classes, will be distributed to Special Service and Educa- 
tion Officers for display purposes upon receipt of a requisition, 
together with the following statement: "These texts are to be used 
for display and publicity purposes," Instruction sheets and lesson 
schedules for off-duty group classes are supplied by the USAFI. 



Unit commanders are requested' not to communicate with the 
Special Service Supply officer, NY POE, -regarding distribution of 
units sets of magazines. This matter is being handled auto- 
matically by the Education Branch, SSD, Hq. ETOUSA, by fort- 
nightly reports based' on latest MRU Strength Reports. Units not 
receiving adequate numbers of sets of magazines within six weeks 
after arrival in the U.K. should report detailed facts through 
Special Service channels to the Chief of Special Service, ETOUSA, 
APO 887. 

Education Branch, Special Service Division, has established an 
Education Lecture- Section which is prepared to furnish Special 
Service and Education officers with information regarding means 
and procedures for conducting lectunes, informal discussions, 
brains trusts, and town meetings in off-duty time. Inquiries should 
be madie in writing to Education Branch, Special Service Division, 
Hq. ETOUSA, APO 887, U.S. Army, through Special Service 
channels. 

This service should not be confused with the Speakers' Depart- 
ment PRO, ETOUSA, which supplies U.S. military speakers for 
British and Allied groups. The purpose of the Education Lecture 
Section is to assist you in providing military and civilian partici- 
pants in your off-duty education program. 



84 



HOW UNITS GET U.S. MAGAZINES. 

Sets of magazines are mailed automatically from the U:S. 
direct to units through the APO. 

Magazines are sent in packets approximately once a week. They 
are mailed according to the unit names and strengths as shown 
on the latest Consolidated Machine Records Unit Strength 
Return. Every unit down to and including separate companies 
should receive sets of magazines automatically through the APO. 
If the MRU Strength Return carries the company strength in the 
battalion, for instance, magazines for the whole battalion would 
come to the battalion for distribution to lower units. 

Units not receiving sets of magazines should write to Special 
Service Division, . HQ, ETO, APO 887, giving organization name 
(as shown on MRU Strength Return) and APO number. Units 
should not write to the New York Port of Embarkation about 
magazines. 

Units newly arriving in the theater will usually not receive 
their magazines for some weeks after arrival. 

11 December 1943. 
LIST OF MAGAZINES COMPRISING A UNIT 'SET 
AS DISTRIBUTED BY ARMY LIBRARY SERVICE TO TROOPS 
OVERSEAS. 
Regular Editions. 

No. of copies each 
Title. (Frequency of Issue. Issue. 

Air Force ... . . Monthly 1 

Coronet .. .. .. Monthly 2 

Detective Story . . Monthly 1 

Reader's Digest . . Monthly 3 

Superman . . . . Every other month 1 

Western Trails . . Every other month 1 " 

Light Editions — (same page size as regular 
edition but on lighter paper 
and advertising omitted). 



Cosmopolitan 


Monthly 


1 


Country Gentleman . . 


Monthly 


1 


Esquire 


Monthly 


2 


Flying 


Monthly 


1 


Inside Detective 


Monthly 


1 


Life 


Weekly 


3 


Look 


Every other week 


1 


Modern Screen 


'Monthly 


1 


Popular Mechanics 


Monthly 


1 


Popular Photography . . 


Monthly 


1 


Radio News 


Monthly 


1 



Infantry Journal 

Newsweek 

Omnibook 

Science News Letter 
Sporting News . . 
Time .. .. 



Pony Editions— (Reduced page size, lighter 
paper and advertising omitted). 
Monthly 1 
Weekly 2 
Monthly 3 
Monthly 1 
Weekly 1 
Weekly 2 



85 



Special (Editions— (Selection from, four regular 
issues combined in one edi- 
tion without advertising ; 
pony size). 

New Yorker . . . . Monthly 1 

Saturday Evening Post Monthly 3 

Miscellaneous. 

Kit Kit . . . . . . Monthly 1 

Intelligence Bulletin . . Monthly 1 



WAR DEPARTMENT. 
ARMY SERVICE FORCES. 
SCHOOL FOR SPECIAL SERVICE, 
LEXINGTON, VIRGINIA. 
PHYSICAL TRAINING ACTIVITIES PROGRAM. 
BASED ON TC NO. 87, WD, NOV. 17, 1942, 
The following memorandum presents the substance of WDTC No. ' 
87 (1942) in usable form. 

1. General. — The exercises listed below differ from those now in 
general practice, in that they are more strenuous and varied in 
nature. They are presented for the purpose of placing greater 
emphasis on the physical conditioning of troops, developing greater 
agility and coordination, and stimulating interest in this important 
type of training. Commanders are reminded that all physical con- 
ditioning must be progressive, systematic, and carefully supervised. 
Serious injury may result if unreasonable physical demands are 
made of unconditioned troops and individuals who, for any reason, 
are below the physical standard of the average. 

2. A. MARCHING— With Full field equipment. 

(1) March 4 miles in 45 minutes. 

(2) March 5 miles in 1 hour. 

(3) March 9 miles in 2 hours. 

(4) March 16 miles in 4 hours. 

(5) March 25 miles in 8 hours. 

(6) March and double time for 7 miles' without halt. 

B. CALISTHENICS— To be most effective and attain the 
objective for which the drill is designed, it is imperative that the 
exercise be done in good form, that is, exactly as described, 
and with energy in each movement. As the endurance of the 
soldier develops, increase the number of times each exercise is 
performed. 

(1) THE HIGH JUMPER 

(a) Position — Feet separated about one foot, knees 
slightly bent, arms raised backwards. 

(b) Movement — Swing arms as in the standing high 
jump, with a jump at the end of each forward and each backward 
swing. On each second forward swing, jump upward at least 1 



86 



foot from the ground. Swing arms hard and jump with vigor. 12 
to 25 times. 



1. Swing arms forward and jump upward. 

2. Swing arms backward and jump upward. 

3. Swing arms forward and over head vigorously 
and leap upward at least 1 foot. 

4. Swing arms backward and jump upward. 



(2) BURPEE 
■ . (a) Position— Attention. 

Ob) Movement — 30 to 50. times in slow cadence. 

1. Bend slightly at the knees and sharply at the 
hips and place hands on floor or ground in front 
of feet in squat position. 

2. Thrust feet and legs backward to a front leaning 
rest position with body straight from shoulders 
to feet, weight supported on hands and toes. 

3. Return to the squat position. 

4. (Resume standing position. 



(3) SQUAT BENDER 

(a) Position — Standing with feet slightly separated and 
elbows bent. 

Ob) Movement— 20 -to 30 times in medium cadence. 



1. Full squat, thrust arms forward, fingers ex- 
tended, keep trunk erect. 

2. Return to original position. < 

3. Bend forward sharply, thrusting downward with 
hands touching toes if possible, with knees 
straight. 





start 



4- 



Return to position. 




Start 



87 



(4) ROWING EXERCISE 

(a) Position — Lie on back, arms extended over head, 
legs straight. 

(b) Movement — 20 to 40 times in slow cadence. 

1. Sit up and at the same time ibend knees siharply. 
Lean forward, thrusting or swinging arms for- 
ward to a rowing position with knees against 
chest, feet flat on ground and arms forward 
(Arms should be on the outside of knees) . 

2. Return to starting position. 
3-4 Repeat 1 and 2. 



ft- 



2 



(5) PUSH-UPS 

(a) .. Position — Front leaning rest. 

(b) Movement — 16 to 40 times in medium cadence. 

1. Bend elbows and touch chest to ground, keeping 
body straight. 

2. Straighten elbows, raising body in straight line. 
3-4 Repeat 1 and 2. 




Start 

(6) SIT-UPS 

((a) Position — Lie on back, feet apart sideward about 
2 feet, arms extended over head. 

Ob) Movement — 20 to 40 times in slow cadence. 

1. Thrust arms forward and touch toes, knees 
straight. 

2. Lie back to original portion. 

3. Raise legs, swinging them over head keeping 
knees straight, and touching toes to .ground be- 
hind head. 

4. Lower legs to starting position, slowly. 



Start- 1 - 2 3 4 

(7) SIDE-BENDER 

(a) Position — Standing with feet apart about 2 J feet, 
hands clasped overhead. 

(b) Movement — 20 to 30 times in medium cadence. 

1. Bend sideward sharply to the left, bending left 
knee. 

2. Bend sideward left, bending quickly and farther 
each time. 



88 



3. Bend sideward left, bending quickly and farther 
each time, 

4. Return to starting position. Same exercise on 
right side on counts 5, 6, 7, 8. 




1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 

(8) BACK TWIST 

(a). Position — Lie on back, arms extended sideward, 



palms down, legsraised to a right angle with feet together, knees 
straight. 

(b)' Movement — 20_ to 30 times in variable cadence, 
slowly at first, then increase tempo as fast as the group can do it 
together iand not be thrown out of position by the momentum of 
the legs. 

1. Swing legs vigorously to left, touching ground 
on left side in vicinity of left hand. 

2. Return to starting position. 

3. Swing vigorously to right, touching ground on 
right side in vicinity of right hand. 

4. Return to starting position. 

Stan i 2 3 4 

(9) SQUAT JUMP 

(a) Position— Standing- with left foot forward about 8 
inches, full knee bend, squat on right heel, hands clasped in top of 
head. 

(b) Movement — Alternate the feet. Begin with 15 
movements and add 5 a week until doing 50 in medium cadence. 
(One jump is one movement). 

. 1. Spring upward from this squat until knees are 
straight and both feet have left the ground. 
Change the position of the feet, the right foot 
becoming the forward foot and vice versa. Drop 
to squat on left heel. 

2. Jump and alternate feet. 

3. Jump and alternate feet. 

4. Jump and alternate feet. 




89 



(10)' TRUNK TWISTER 



(a) — Position — Standing with feet apart sideward 
about two feet, with ' hands clasped behind head, elbows held 
backward, chin in. 

(b) Movement — 20 to 40 times in medium cadence. 

1. Bend forward, knees straight. Do this vigorously. 

2. Bounce downward, but simultaneously rotate 
trunk sharply to the left. 

3. Same to the right. 

4. Return to original position, pulling head back 
and chin in strongly. 




(11) STATIONARY RUN 



(a) Position — Attention. 

Ob) Movement — Stationary run. Begin slowly and run 
about 20 double steps (counting only on left foot). Speed up 
somewhat for another 20 steps, raising knees to height of hips, 
then run 20 or 40 steps at full speed, raising knees hard: then 
slow for 20 steps more. 




Start 1 .2 . 3 4 

(12) EIGHT COUNT PUSH-UPS 
(a) Position — Attention, 
(b) Movement — 10 to 20 times in medium cadence. 

1. Full squat, placing hands on ground in front of 
feet, shoulder width apart. 
2. Thrust feet' and legs back to front leaning rest 
position. 

3. Touch chest to ground. 

4. Return to front leaning rest. 

5. Touch chest to ground. 

6. Return to front leaning rest. 

7. Return to squat rest. 

8. Starting position. 




Start- 1 2 3 4 5 6 7.8 



90 



SUBSTITUTE EXERCISES 

Exercises 4, 6 and 8 require the men to assume the supine 
position on the ground. Because ground conditions are frequently 
such as to make this undesirable, the f ollowing substitutions are 
recommended: 

4a (Substitute for No. ■ 4)— MOUNTAIN CLIMBER 

(a) Position — Squatting position with right leg ex- 
tended to the rear and left leg drawn up against chest. 

(b) Movement — 16 to 40 times in medium cadence. 

1. Extend left foot back to rear and bring right 
leg up under chin. 

2. Return to starting position. 
3-4 Repeat 1 and 2. 

Start 1 2 3 4 

6a (Substitute for No! 6)— THE WOODOHOPPER 

(a) Position — Feet about two feet apart, .trunk turned 
left, hands clasped together, arms thrust over left shoulder, head 
facing front. 

(b) Movement — 20, 4-count movements. 

1. In a chopping movement, bend the trunk forward, 

bringing arms down vigorously between legs. Ex- 
tend arms as far behind legs as possible. 

2. Raise the trunk and assume the same position as 

in starting position but with trunk turned right 
and hands over right shoulder. 

3. Repeat -first movement. 

4. Return to starting position. 




Start- 1 2 3 4 

8a (Substitute for No. 8)— THE BRIDGE. 

(a) Position — From a bridge position with arms ex- 
extended backward and legs extended forward with feet flat on 
ground, raise up until body weight is born entirely upon hands 
and; feet. 

(b) Movement — 20 to 30 times in medium cadence. 

1. Arch the back by thrusting the waist upward and 

the head backward. 

2. Return to the starting position. 
3-4. Repeat 1 and 2. 




Start 1 2 3 4 



91 



C. GUERRILLA EXERCISES 
For routine exercises arrange groups (about 30 men to a group) 
in a circle formation in single file, men about 8 feet apart. Start 
men walking in a circle at a moderate gait. The instructor de- 
monstrates the exercise and commands START. The exercise is 
performed while continuing to move around the circle. Upon the 
command RELAX the group resumes the original walk. The -in-" 
structor should immediately demonstrate a new exercise. Re- 
laxed walking periods should not exceed 15 seconds. However, 
this will vary with the condition of the men. The following ex- 
ercise may also be done from a column formation or from 
random position. 

(1) GROUND EXERCISES 

(a) All Fours — Face down on hands and feet walk forward 

(b) Bear Walk — Face down on hands and feet travel 
forward by moving the right arm and right leg simul- 
taneously, and then the left arm and leg simultaneously. Keep 
knees 'straight. 

■■(c) Leap Frog — Count two's. At start, odd leap over even 
numbers. At next start, even leap over odd. Continue this exer- 
cise, raising the back . high, higher and higher. 

(d) Bouncing Ball — Support body on hands at shoulder 
width, feet apart, back and legs in line, knees straight. Travel 
f orward by means of series of short upward springs of hands and 
feet simultaneously. (Bounce the hips up' and down). 

(2) SQUAT-BEND EXERCISES 

(a) Duck Waddle — Assume knees bent position, walk for- 
ward. 

(b) Squat Jump — Assume a knees bend position, jump 
forward. 

(c) Indian Walk— Bend knees' slightly, bend trunk forward, 
arms hanging down until fingers! touch ground. Retaining this 
position, walk forward. 

(b) Crouch Run — Lean forward at the waist until trunk is 
parallel with the ground. Retaining this position, run forward 
at a jogging pace. ' 

(e) Steam Engine — Clasp hands behind the neck, walk 
forward in the. following manner. As the left leg is brought for- 
ward, raise the' knee, bend the trunk f orward, and touch the right 
elbow to the left knee then step forward on to the left foot and 
raise the tr/unk. Repeat with the right leg, and left elbow. 

(3) ERECT EXERCISES 

(a) Walk on toes — Walk forward on the toes. 

(b) Fast Walk — Walk forward at a fast pace, swinging arms 
vigorously. 

(c) Straddle run — Run forward, leaping to the right as 
right foot advances, leaping to the left as the left foot advances. 

. (d) Knee-raise run — Run forward, raising the knee of 
the advancing leg as high as possible on each step. 



92 



(e) Hop — Travel forward by hopping on the left. Take 
long hops. Change to right foot and repeat. 

(f) Broad Jumping— Travel forward by means of a series 
of broad jumps' off both feet. 

(4) DOUBLE EXERCISES 
Before starting these exercises, have the group count off by 
two's, then place them, in pairs (side by side). In .all cases the 
One's carry the Two's at the signal START. At the signal 
CHANGE, the men reverse, positions; Two's carry One's, and 
continue the same exercise. On the signal RELAX, both teams 
return to their original positions and walk forward. 

(a) Army' Carry — One, standing facing Two's side, bends 
his knees and leans forward placing one arm behind Two's back 
■and one arm under Two's knees. One straightens up, lifting Two 
from the ground. Two places near arm round One's shoulders 
and clasps his other hand. Retaining this position. One runs for- 
ward 30 to 60 paces. 

(b) Fireman's Carry — One, standing sideways in front of 
Two, bends his knees and leans forward, placing one arm through 
Two's crotch. Two leans forward until he lies across One's 
shoulders. One straightens up, lifting Two off the ground. One, 
using his hand of the arm through Two's crotch, .grasps the wrist 
of Two's arm that is hanging over his shoulder. Retaining this 
position. One runs forward 30 to >6Q .paces. 

(c) Cross Carry — One, standing sideways, in front of Two, 
leaps forward. Two bends *forward until he is lying across the 
middle of One's back. One then places one arm around Two's 
knees and one arm around Two's shoulders, and straighten up, 
lifting Two from the ground. Retaining this position, One runs 
forward 30 to 60 paces. . 

(d) Singleshoulder Carry — One, standing in front of and 
facing Two, .assumes a semi- squatting position. Two leans for- 
ward until he lies across One's left shoulder. One clasps his arms 
around Two's legs and straightens up, lifting Two from the 
ground. Retaining this position, One runs forward 30 to 60 paces. 

SUPPLEMENTARY GUERRILLA EXERCISES 

In addition to the above guerrilla exercises all of which are 
included in Training Circular* No. 87, the following additional ex- 
ercises are suggested : - 

(e) Lame Dog — (on either leg). Face do^vn on two hands 
and one. foot, travel forward, moving both hands, then the foot 
alternately. 

(f) Frog Jump — From squat position with hands on floor 
between legs leap forward catching weight on hands, bringing up 
legs to squat position. 

(g) Crab Walk — Back down on hands and feet 
(with feet forward) walk in direction of hands. (May go back- 
wards and sideways as well) . 

(h) Mule Kick — Move forward by springing forward catch- 
ing weight on hands and kicking feet backward and upward in 



93 



the air; as feet return to ground, straighten body and continue 
exercise. 

(i) Prone-face down 

1. Crawl, hands and feet (keep belly in contact with 

ground). 

2. Crawl*, using hands only. 

3. Crawl,, using feet only. 

4. Wiggle, use neither hands nor feet. 
(2) Squat-bend Exercises 

(a) Inch Worm — From the front leaning rest position walk 
up toward the hands with- short steps. Every effort should 
be made to get the heels on the ground as quickly as possible and 
to keep the palms touching as long as possible. The knees are 
kept straight throughout this exercise. 

(b) Front roll over right shoulder. 

(c) Front roll over left shoulder. 

(d) Forward roll. 

(e) Backward roll. 

D. GRASS EXERCISES— The following exercises are, used by 
large groups training in physical conditioning. These drills should 
be executed vigorously and quickly. All exercises demand a 
considerable degree of endurance and men should be required to 
continue to "drive " into the exercises, even after they are very 
tired. Exercises for this purpose are : 

(1 ) Front-up-back-up — From a * standing position at the 
Command FRONT the men flop down quickly onto the ground 
on their .stomachs, as in position for firing. On the Command UP, 
they leap to their feet and do a vigorous stationary run until the 
next command. On the Command BACK, they drop down on 
their backs, and oh the command UP, again spring to their feet 
and do a stationary run. When on their stomachs the com- 
mand BACK means to flop over onto their backs (not by rolling 
over, but by thrusting legs through the arms and vice versa) 
Vary the commands, so that the men will not be able to 
anticipate the next movement. 

(2) Go-stop — At the Command GO, the men spring forward 
as a football team would do in running signals. At the Command 
STOP, they stop and drop to the lineman's crouch. At GO, they 
again sprint forward. This may be varied by the Command FLOP 
which means to go to the ground on the stomach. 'If the Com- 
mand is RIGHT, they turn and sprint to the right at an angle of 
about 45 degrees. LEFT, in like manner, means to go to the left. 
GO in each case means straight forward again. 

TO THE REAR reverses the direction. • Keep this up for at least 
five minutes. 

(3) Zig-Zag Run and Flop — The men, upon the signal to go, run 
fast about 45° to the right, and when the whistle sounds again, 
zig-zag 45 c to the left and on a second, or two blasts of the 
whistle, flop to the ground. Upon hearing the. next whistle they 
soring to their feet, and run rapidly to the right, continuing as 



94 



above until commanded to halt. This may be by a long blast on, 
the whistle. Continue for 5 minutes. 

(4) Zig-Zag and Squat — Same as (3) above, except, on the 
whistle, instead of flopping to the ground, the men come to a full 
squat with hands on the ground. Continue for 5 minutes. 

(5) Sit-Up — Lying on back on ground with arms over head, 
sit up, knees straight, and reach forward, touching toes with 
hands. Return to ground. Execute 15 to 30 times in slow 
cadence. 

(6) Legs Over Head— Lying on ground, arms above head, swing 
legs up and back over the head, touching toes to ground behind 
h^ad. Keep knees straight. Execute 15 to 30 times in slow 
cadence 

(7) Bicycling — On back, legs above trunk, elbows by the side, 
with hands on hips, holding the hips up, make vigorous bicycling 
movements. 'Continue the exercise from 3 to 5 minutes. 

(8) Head and Feet Up — Lie on ground, arms by the sides, 
palms on ground. At the Command EXERCISE, place the hands 
near the sides of t,he hips, with the knees straight, raise both legs 
and trunk from the ground, sitting up vigorously on the buttocks. 
Repeat 10 to 20 times. 

(9) Legs Right and Left — Lying on the back, arms stretched 
out to the side, palms on the ground, legs vertical, knees straight, 
sw.ivt,* the legs vigorously sideward right and left, until the legs 
almost touch the ground on either side. Do this vigorously and 
rapid!/. The faster it is done, the more vigorous is the move- 
ment. 

(10) Run Zig-Zag — This can be done in two ways — 

(a) Step very far to the right with the right foot, and 
then far to the left with the left foot, as though strid- 
ing through a set of automobile tires, staggered, and 
about 3 or 4 feet apart. Also make speed forward. 

(b) Step across the right foot with the left foot, and run 
3 steps diagonally to the right. Then step over -the 
left foot with the right foot and run 3 steps diagonally 
to the left etc, This can be done for 5 or 7 steps. 

(11) Exercise Known as " Burpee Test " — (a) From the position 
of attention place the hands on the ground in front of the feet, 
bending the knees somewhat. Then thrust the feet backwards to 
a front leaning rest position on the ground. Return in reverse 
order to position of attention. Do this slowly at first, then 
gradually speed it "up. Execute from 15 to 30 times. 

(b). Same as (a) above, except ' that the legs are thrust 
alternately to the right and to the left diagonally. 

All of these exercises should be continued until there is real 
respiratory distress. 

E. RUNNING EXERCISES— (1) Running is an activity all 
mea miy be required to perform when assigned to combat service. 
It serves to develop muscular and cardiorespiratory endurance 



95 



■that is important in active fighting. The exercise may be per- 
formed in three ways: 

. a Road or drill field marching, 
b Cross country running, 
c Steeple chase and obstacle course running. 
2. The method and order of progress used in practising this 
activity will generally be a combination of walking, jogging, fast 
running and sprinting. During the preliminary stages, the road 
and cross country runs should be short (1 or 2 miles), with fre- 
quent walking periods. On completing the run, men should be 
required to walk slowly fpr 3 or 4 minutes before stopping. 

•3. Running exercises may be conducted by having squads 
follow the leader at 50 yard intervals; each squad to cross terrain 
features in the same manner as the one immediately ahead. This 
is a variation of Follow the Leader Games. - "" 

F. OOMBATIViES— The purpose of such contests is to develop 
aggressiveness initiative, and resourcefulness. The soldier should 
be encouragec. to make a quick direct attack, and to attempt to 
achieve a victory at once. The success of these exercises will 
depend largelj upon the careful selection of individual opponents. 
Men must be evenly matched. Speed and agility in execution 
should be stressed more than mere strength. Also team play is 
much more important than the physical accomplishments of any 
individual ^ - • 

(1) DUAL. 

(a) Hand Wrestle — Opponents grasp (right or left) hands 
with little fingers interlocked. One foot is forward 
besides the opponent's forward foot, and each attempts 
by pulling, pushing, a sideward movement or other 
manoeuvring to force opponent to move one or both 
feet from original position. Change hands after each 
bout. 

(b) Pull Hands — With contestants matched in pairs, instruct 
them to grasp hands and attempt to pull the opponent 
over to one's position. In grasping hands, each 
individual should grasp the wrist of the opponent so 
that there is a double grasp with heels of hands 
in contact and with each hand grasping the other's 
wrist. 

(c) Wrist Bending (Make them beg) — Opponents pair off 
and face. Both men raise arms forward and lock 
fingers with opponent, palms together, fingers up. At 
starting signal both men attempt to bend wrist of 
opponents. 

(d) Neck Pull— Grasp the back of opponent's neck with 
one hand; for example, each contestant grasps the 
back of opponent's neck with right hand. In this 
case the right foot would be forward". Attempt to 
pull opponent out of position. 

(e) Head push — Contestants are in pairs. Instruct them 
to bend over and place heads together, crown to 
crown. At signal both start pushing. No part of 
body except heads may touch. 



96 



(f) Shoulder push (left and right) — Contestants are in 
pairs. . Instruct them to bend over and come together 
until shoulders meet, right shoulder. At signal both 
start pushing, using shoulder only. '■ Repeat with left 
shoulder. 

(g) Back to back push — Place two contestants standing 
back to back with elbows locked. Establish a line 10 
feet in front of each contestant. At signal, each, by- 
pushing backward, attempts to push the other over 
his (the opponent's) base line. The contestants are 
not allowed to lift and carry their opponents — pushing 
only is permitted. Either contestant pushed over his 
own base line loses the bout. Three bouts constitute 
a match. The contestant successful in two is the 
winner. 

(h) Back to back tug — Place two contestants so they stand 
back to back with both arms linked at the elbows. 
Establish a line 10 feet in front of each contestant. 
At signal, each contestant attempts to drag the 
opponent over his base line. Lifting and carrying of 
the opponent are permitted. The contestants must 
maintain their original positions with arms linked. 
Either contestant carried across his opponent's base 
line loses. Three bouts constitute a match ; the con- 
testant successful in two wins. 

(i) Back to back, arm between legs (right and left) — 
Contestants are paired off back to back. Instruct them 
to bend over until posteriors only are touching. Then 
place right arm between legs and clasp hands. At 
signal both attempt to pull opponent across line. 
Repeat with left hand and then both hands. 

(j) Rooster fight— Hop on left foot with arms behind back.' 
Use the right shoulder and right side of chest to butt 
opponent. The object is to make the opponent lose his 
balance and fall, to unfold his arms and to touch his 
free foot to* the ground. Engage in this form of 
rooster fight by sides. For example, suppose there 
are 10 soldiers on a" side ; they may be designated by 
having cne side without thirts They may engage in 
individual combat or two or more may attack one 
opponent. 

(k) Knock them down (any method) — At starting signal 
both partners will attempt to knock opponent off feet 
in any manner he chooses. He may tackle, push, pull, 
lift, or wrestle. First man who has any. part of body 
except feet touching ground loses. 

(I) Step on toes — At starting signal soldiers will attempt 
to step on toes of opponent. Activity continues until 
stop signal. 
(2) Mass Combatives. 

(a) Bull in ring — No equipment needed. Formation: 
Group forms in a circle holding hands. One man who 



97 



is termed the " bull " is placed in the center. If there 
are more than twenty men in the ring have two 
"bulls." The "bull" tries to break out by charging 
the ring so the clasped hands are forced apart. 
If the " bull " gets out the players try to catch him. 
Player successful in catching the "bull" becomes 
" bull " and game continues. 

(b) Ring push — The groups are formed in two circles, one 
smaller circle within- the other. The inside circle is 
facing in, the outside circle facing out, so that the 
circles are back to back. A circle is marked off on 
the ground or floor to encircle outside circle of men. 
At starting signal men in inside circle attempt to push 
men in outside circle over line while outside circle 
men attempt to remain in circle. All pushing is done 
with backs only, arms are folded on chest. 

(c) , Line charging — Two teams of men form two lines 
opposite each other. The two lines should be about 
1 foot apart laterally. At the whistle, team A attempts 
to break through the line of team B. Team B blocks 
in every conceivable way, except by holding. Team A 
may use its hands; team B may not. Team A may not 
go outside the end men on team B. After from 3 to 
5 seconds (usually 3 seconds at first, 5 seconds later) 
the physical training officer blows his whistle and the 
number of men who have broken through the 
opponents after five innings. Indoor competition, this 
may be conducted on a string of mats. 

(d) Catch and pull tug-of"war-— Draw a line on the ground. 
Divide group into two teams, one on either side of 
the line. Attempt to grasp /the hand or the wrist of 
one of the opposite team, and pull him across the 
line. This is not necessarily an individual affair, for 
two or more of one team may gang up on one 
opponent. When an individual is pulled across the 
line (that is when he touches the ground on the other 
side of the line) he retires to the rear of his captors' 
territory as a prisoner. Continue until all of one 
team have been pulled across the line or until left 
on their own side and they refuse to approach the 
line closely enough to engage the opponent, then 
director should declare them defeated. Every effort 
should be made, however, to discourage such practices. 
(As a variation of this, those pulled across the line 
may join with the opponent in attacking their former 
comrades, continuing until no one is left on one side.) 

(e) Horse and rider fights— -Teams of two players each 
take part in this contest; Have one player of each 
team sit astride the hips of the other player and lock 
his feet in front. At signal, the "horses" move forward 
so the riders can reach each other. Each "rider" 
attempts to overthrow his opponent. The "horses" are 
not allowed to help the "riders." The "riders" are 



98 



allowed to use all fair wrestling tactics; they are not 
allowed to interfere with the "horses." Either "rider" 
forced to touch the floor in any way, either forced 
down from his "horse" or overthrown with his "horse" 
loses. If two "riders" go down together, the one touch- 
ing the floor first loses. Last team up is winner. 

(f) Sitting push out of circle — This activity is performed 
in same manner as (b) above, except that all men 
are seated on ground. 

(g) Goal line wrestling — This activity is performed in the 
same manner as in (d) above, except that a single 
line is drawn 15 feet behind each team and when 
player is carried or pulled across line behind 
opponent's side he is declared "dead," and out of 
competition. 

(h) Human tug-of-war— Formation: Column of files facing 
each other. Players stand close together, arms placed 
about waists of men in front (grasping left wrist with 
right hand is the strongest grip). Leading men of each 
team grasp opponents about neck and shoulders. Team 
breaking first or having one or more men pulled over 
the line separating the two teams after 90 seconds is 
the loser. 

G. RELAYS— Although Training Circular 87 does not include 
relays, the following list is suggested because these events are 
excellent conditioning activities. In addition, they are interesting 
to the men and provide an excellent supplement to the more 
formal calisthenlc exercises and grass drills. 

(a) Jump stick — This event is not without danger if the 
men should cease to be alert or fail to coordinate 
at the right time. The players are in line formation. 
Ahead of them two teammates hold a cross bar, rope 
or belt, one at each end. At the signal they run 
toward' their line of players holding the bar about 
knee high. The players must jump as the bar 
approaches in order to avoid being hit. The players 
then run to the right of the line and drop the bar at 
the starting point. They then run to the rear of the 
line, and the two players in front of the line repeat 
the process. The game can also be played by having 
the bar carried^ waist high and having players in line 
squat to keep from being hit. In this latter event a 
flexible bar is recommended, one that will bend and 
not injure the player who might be hit; and, as another 
precaution, glasses ( should not be worn. . 

(b) Horse and Rider— No equipment needed. Players 
stand at attention. At the signal to start, No. 2 in 
the column leaps upon the back of No. 1, who carries 
him across the distance line in pig-a-back fashion. 
There he ~ drops him. No. 1 remains behind the 
distance line. No. 2 rushes back and picks up No. 3 
in the column and" carries him beyond the distance 
line and No. 2 remains there. No. 3 rushes back and 



99 



picks up No, 4, and so on. When the last man in the 
column has been carried across the distance line the 
race is finished. 

(c) Izzy Dizzy — Formation: Column of files. First man in 
each column runs to a given point, 15 yds. from start- 
ing line", places right hand on ground and circles to 
right or left 4 times keeping hand on ground. He 
then returns to his column, touching the next man, 
who, when touched, repeats the procedure. Relay is 
ended when last man in column returns to starting 
line Column finishing first is the winner. 

(d) Over and Under— Formation: Column of files. Crouch- 
ing position, hands on knees. Last man in each 
column begins relay by going over man in front of 
him, under the next man, and sp on until he has gone 

. over or under the first man in the column. He then 
sprints to a given point, 20 yds. from the head of the 
column, and returns to the head of the column where 
he crouches, hands on knees. "When the first man 
returns the man who is now last repeats the pro- 
cedure. This continues until all the men have com- 
pleted the run and returned. Column finishing first 
is the winner. 

.(e) Three legged— Formation: Teams in columns of two's. 
Men on teams will pair off and stand together with 
inside arms about the other's waist. Inside legs are 
tied together at the ankle with belt, rope, or any 
available like object. At starting signal the first pair 
of each team will run to a point 20 yds. distant and 
return at which time next pair will run. Repeat until 
all men have run. First team having all men finish 
wins. 

(f) Two legged — Formation: Teams in columns of two's. 
Men on each team will pair off and stand together 
with inside arms about waists of partner. Inside 
legs are lifted off ground and held up together. At 
starting signal first pair in each team will run to 
point 20 yards aw'ay, using outside legs only and 
return in same fashion, at which time next pair will 
run. Repeat until all pairs have run. First team 
having all men finish wins. 

(g) Wheel Barrow — No equipment needed. First man 
walks on hands, second man carries the feet of the 
first man. Advance to given point (about 30 feet in 
front). At this point men change positions (second 
man walking on hands, first man carrying feet of 
second man), and return to starting line. After first 
two men cross starting line the next two men start 
at described, and so on. 

(h) Three man wheel barrow — Formation: Teams in single 
file. First man in each line goes down to hands and 
feet position. Second man places hand on hips *of 
first man, assuming a semi-leaning rest position- The 
third man then picks up legs of second man as in two 

100 



man wheelbarrow and the three man team is ready 
to move. Relay is then run in regular manner. 

(i) Chariot race — Any number of teams. Suggested not 
over 15 men per team. Team holds hands to form 
circle with all men facing out except one man who 
faces in and is the "driver." At starting signal all 
teams race to distant point, keeping circle intact. 
The one man facing in gives directions and orders. 
First team back wins. 

(j) Caterpillar— Any number of teams in single file. All 
members of teams sit on ground with legs spread, 
close behind and with arms around waist of man in 
front of him. At starting signal teams move forward 
by moving posteriors and by jerks of body. No hands 
may be used. First team to get all men across line 
five yards to front wins. 



SCHEDULING PROCEDURES. 

Participants should be advised as to coming events, entry 
closing date, date play begins, and type of tournament. This may 
be done by medium of announcements in mess halls, formations, 
bulletin board notices, etc. 

The type of tournament to be used must necessarily be governed 
by the number of entries, available playing areas, length of season, 
personnel and equipment. The declaration of winners is essential 
but that should not be the sole objective of individual and 
team tournaments. One should be concerned with creating a 
wholesome interest in the activity and maintaining it for a 
maximum number of the participants as far along in the tourna- 
ment as possible. 

Much interest is added to a sports program by varying, wherever 
possible, the types of tournaments used. Following are a number 
of such tournaments. 

THE BOUND ROBIN. . 

The round robin type of tournament provides for a maximum 
amount of participation for it requires every team or individual 
to play every other team or individual, and the winner is declared 
on a percentage basis. 

This type is probably used more than any other type of tourna- 
ment. It is very desirable when a large number are entered for 
the entrants may be divided into small leagues to determine 
league winners. The league winners may then be placed in a 
straight elimination tournament to determine the championship. 

Following are the pairings for an eight-team round robin 
tournament and from this a similar set-up may be made for more 
teams. 

Even number of teams— eight: Using numbers to represent 
teams, number one CI) is placed at top of left hand column and 
remains constant, other numbers are rotated in a clock-wise 
direction: 

1—2 1—8 1—7 1—6 1—5 1—4 1—3 
8—3 7—2 6—8 5—7 4—6 3—5 2—4 
7—4 6r— 3 5—2 4—8 3—7 2— <6 8—6 
6-^5 5—4 4—3 3— & 2—8 8—7 7—6 



101 



Odd number of teams— seven: Use the letter B to represent a 
bye, the letter B remains constant at top of left hand column and 
the other numbers are rotated in a clock wise direction: 
B — 1 B— 7 B— 6 B — 5 B— 4 B— 3 B— 2 
7—2 6—1 5—7 4—6 3-^5 2—4 1—3 
6—3 5—2 4—1 3—7 2—6 1—^5 7—4 
5—4 4—3 3—2 2—1 1—7 7—6 6—5 

The double round robin is the same as the single round robin 
except every team or individual plays every other team or 
individual twice. 

STRAIGHT ELIMINATION 

The straight elimination type of tournament is the fastest method 
known for determining a winner. It is sometimes called the "knock 
out system" for each defeat definitely eliminates some player or 
team from the tournament. 

One of the main objections to this method is the fact that it 
makes absolutely no provision for an off-dtay when a team is not 
displaying its usual good. form. In other methods the defeated 
one has an opportunity to compensate for off-days' by winning 
succeeding matches. 

When the number of entries equals some power of "two*" such 
as, four, eight, sixteen, thirty -two, etc., the number of matches 
and brackets comes out evenly. Numbered cards, numbered blank 
cartridges, or lotto discs are used in drawing team positions, the 
number -drawn indicating the bracket into which the individual or 
team is placed. 

When the number of teams is not an exact power of "two" the 
following formula should be used to determine the number of 
matches in the first round and the number of byes allowed: 
Number of entries minus The highest power equals The number of 
of "two" below the matches in the 

number of entries first round. 

(Example) 11 — 8 = 3 

The highest power The number of equals The number 
of "two" above the minus entries of byes 

number of entries 

(Example) 16 — 11 = 5 

This procedure takes care of all byes in the first round and 
warrants a perfect power of two in the second round, etc. If the 
number of byes are oddi, the extra one is placed at the bottom. 

The total number of games to be played is always one less than 
the number of individuals or teams entered. 

THE DOUBLE ELIMINATION 
This plan compensates for off nights when contestants are not up 
to form, and gives an individual or a team that is defeated in the 
first round an opportunity to come back and win in the finals. It 
also makes a longer tournament and provides more participation. 
Player No. 1 defeated No. 2, but No. 2 won through the several 



102 



losers' brackets and again met No. 1 in the finals, winning the 
tournament. In this type of tournament it is necessary for parti- 
cipants to be defeated) twice before being eliminated. 

Unless those in charge of this type of tournament continually 
urge participants to play their matches, the ones on the losing 
side of the bracket are often inclined to delay, and, as a conse- 
quence, those in the winning bracket have to wait so long that 
they are not interested, and possibly out of condition, when the 
finals are played. ~ 

STRAIGHT CONSOLATION TOURNAMENT. 

In order t'o care for individuals that are defeated in the first 
round it is very desirable to supplement the regular tournament 
with a consolation tournament, 

While this type of tournament is primarily for the purpose of 
promoting additional activity for those that are defeated in the 
first round, some institutions allow additional points toward 
individual and team championships. 

In a regular consolation tournament just one-half of the first 
round teams are carried into the consolation. If there are sixteen 
teams in a tournament, eight of them would continue as winners 
to the second round and the other eight would be carried in the 
consolation tournament. 

CONTINUING CONSOLATION TOURNAMENT. 

This type of tournament is really a continuation of consolations 
and is especially considerate of losers. If there are sixteen 
players in the first round, the eight winners would continue until 
a champion is declared and the eight losers are moved down to 
the next series of brackets or what might be termed the "B" 
tournament. 

In this eight-player "B" tournament the four winners continue 
to a championship and the four losers are moved down into 
anothep*consolation or what might be termed the "C" tournament, 
etc. 

LADDER TOURNAMENT, i 
This is a method of running a tournament whereby the players 
or teams are moved up or down according to the result of the 
play. The name "Ladder" was selected because of the design 
originally used, being similar to the several rungs and uprights 
of a ladder. 

The names or numbers of contestants are drawn and placed one 
below the other in order of drawing. A player may challenge 
the player directly above him and unless this player has already 
challenged the player above him, the challenge must be accepted 
within a designated time. It often facilitates matters to have 
Che challenge submitted in writing and recorded by the person 
in charge. If the one challenged does not play, or plays and is 
beaten, the two .change positions; if the one above wins, there 
is no change. When two contestants have met they cannot again, 
play each other, until one has played once with another contestant. 



103 



In case handicaps are used, each player carries his handicap 
against all players. (This method is sometimes varied by allow- 
ing challenges to be made two places above instead of just one.) 

Numerous devices may be made that will facilitate the transfer 
of names from one position to another. Following are 4 few that 
are most generally used: 

The tag board is perhaps the simplest to construct. Small 
nails are driven at regular intervals into a narrow board of 
desired length. This row of nails should be numbered consecu- 
tively. The names of the several players are placed upon ordinary 
tags and thrown into a hat. The first' tag drawn is placed on 
tag No. 1, the second on No. 2, and so on. The most economical 
but not so convenient type is the plain placard with small slits 
into which little cards, with the names thereon, may be slipped. 



ELIMINATION TOURNAMENTS 



DOUBLE 



SINGLE 



H-1 




104 



Circular 
No. 107 



. WAR 'DEPARTMENT, 
Washington 25, D. C, 15 March 1944. 



RESPONSIBILITY FOR MAINTENANCE OF SPECIAL SER- 
VICES AND MORALE SERVICES EQlflPMENT.-^Section III, 
Circular No. 202, War Department, 1943, is rescinded and the 
following substituted therefor: 

1. First and second echelon maintenance of equipment procured 
and distributed by the Special Services and Morale Services 
Divisions is a responsibility of personnel of the using organization. 

2. (Responibilty for all higher echelon maintenance of the items 
of Special Services and Morale Services equipment (standard and 
nonstandard) designated below is assigned as follows (with the 
exception of materiel of the United States Army Motion Picture 
Service which performs all echelons of maintenance on its own 
equipment): ■ ' ° 



Item 



a. Radio transmitters -and 
receivers. 



b. Public address sys- 
tems '. 



c. Power generating units 
and converters. 1 



d. Power generating units 
and converters.2 



e. Record reproducing 
equipment. 



f. Musical instruments 



Maintenance 



Chief Signal Officer (in theater of 
operations, signal . maintenance 
facilities as delegated by theater 
commander) . 3 

Chief Signal Officer (in theater of 
operations, , signal maintenance 
facilities as delegated by theater 
commander). 3 

Chief Signal Officer (in theater of 
operations, signal maintenance 
facilities as delegated by' theater 
commander). 5 

Chief of Ordnance in (theater of 
operations, ordnance maintenance 
facilities as. delegated by theater 
commander). 3 

Chief Signal Officer (in theater of 
operations, signal maintenance 
facilities as delegated by theater 
commander) . 3 

The Quartermaster General (in 
theater of operations, repair 
facilities as delegated ' by theater 
commander). 



1 Those power generating units and converters purchased by Signal 

Corps. 

2 Those power generating units and converters purchased by 

Ordnance Department. 

3 Normally delegated to these facilities, but may when conditions 

warrant be delegated to other facilities by theater commander. 



105 



3. (Responsibility for spare parts storage and issue in the zone of 
the interior for Special Services and Morale Services equipment is 
assigned as follows: 

a. To the. Chief Signal Officer for organizational and higher 
echelon spare parts for those items listed in paragraph 2a, b, c, and 
e that are standard items the procurement of which is assigned 
to Signal Corps by existing directives. 

" b. To the Chief of Ordnance for organizational and higher 
echelon spare parts for such items included in paragraph 2d as 
are standard items the procurement of which is assigned -to the 
Ordnance Department by existing directives. 

c. To the Quartermaster General for organizational and higher 
echelon spare parts for musical instruments. Distribution of spare 
parts will be in accordance with instructions issued by the Special 
Services Division. 

d. To the Director, Special Services Division, and the Director, 
Morale Services Division, or, when requested by Special Services 
or Morale Services, chief of appropriate technical service when 
acceptable to the latter, for organizational spare parts for non- 
standard items of paragraph 2 pertaining to the respective Division. 

4. In the theater of operations spare parts for Special Services 
and Morale Services equipment will be stored and issued as 
follows: 

a. By signal base supply depots or other facilities designated by 
theater "commander for organizational and higher echelon spare 
parts for those items listed in paragraph 2a, b, c, and e, that are 
Standard Signal Corps items. 

b. By ordnance base supply depots or other facilities designated 
by the theater commander for organizational and higher echelon 
spare parts for 'those items included in paragraph 2d that are 
standard ordnance items. 

c. Spare parts for musical instruments, and organizational spare 
parts for nonstandard items of equipment will not be stocked in 
the theater of operations, but will be obtained by requisition on 
the port of embarkation. 

5. Third and higher echelon spare parts for nonstandard Special 
Services and Morale Services equipment will not be stocked, but 
will be obtained by using parts from damaged equipment, unless 
parts required are otherwise normally on hand in the organization 
responsible for maintenance, and are available in sufficient quan- 
tities so that their use for this purpose will not jeopardize repair 
of standard tactical equipment. • 

6. In the interest of conserving critical materials used in the 
manufacture of some athletic equipment, unserviceable special 
service athletic equipment which cannot be repaired by using the 
repair kits furnished will be turned over to quartermaster 
reclamation installations for possible reclamation or for disposal. 

7. a. [Responsibility for maintenance of projectors, all photo- 
graphic and allied equipment including the transfer of certain 
photographic activities from the Special Services Divison to the 
Army (Pictorial Service is assigned, as follows: 

01) First and second echelon' maintenance to the using 
organizations. 



106 



(S) In the zone of the interior, higher echelon maintenace to 
the Chief Signal Officer. In the theaters of operation, 
to signal maintenance facilities, or if circumstances 
require, such other facility as delegated by the theater 
commander. 

b. Responsibility for spare parts storage, and issue in the zone 
of the interior for the above projector and accessory equipment is 
assigned as follows: 

01) To the Chief Signal (Officer for organizational and higher 
echelon spare parts for standard items of equipment. 

(2) To the Chief .Signal Officer for a minimum quantity for 
organizational and such higher eeheion spare parts as 
may be necessary to* effect economical repair of non- 
standard items of equipment. 

c. In the theater of -operations spare parts for standard .and non- 
standard projector and accessory equipment will be stored and 
issued by signal base supply depots or other facilities'- designated 
by the theater commander. 

d. The agency responsible for maintenance is authorized to 
obtain replacement repair parts for nonstandard equipment by 
using parts from damaged equipment where such repair parts are 
not provided. 

e. Requisition for spare parts for projector and accessory equip- 
ment will be through Signal Corps channels. 

[A. G. 475 08 Mar 44).] 
By order of the Secretary of War: 

G. C. MARSHALL, 
Official: Chief of Staff. 

J. A. ULIO, 

Major General, 

The Adjutant General.. 

. AG P iBE HQ SOS 4-44/22700/26275 



CINEMA BRANCH 
SPECIAL SERVICE DIVISION 

HQ. ETOUSA APO.887 
CARE, HANDLING AND MAINTENANCE OF 
16mm PROJECTORS AND FILM. 
1 PACKING AND MOVING EQUIPMENT. 

(a) Careful handling of the equipment . when packing, unpack- 
ing and installing it, is the igreatest single factor in trouble-free 
operation. - 

Cb) When a showing "is completed, the projectionist should 
pack all equipment and accessories neatly and orderly in their 
carrying cases. Power and speaker cables should be COILED, 
not folded. 

(e) 'Care must be exercised in lifting, stowing in vehicles;, and 
transporting equipment. 
2. CLEANING. . 

(a) Use soft, lintless cloth or lens tissue to keep lenses free from 
dust or dirt. DO NOT SCRATCH LENSES — PROTECT THEM AT 



107 



ALL TIME®. 

Ob) Use a brush and cleaning fluid to free film channels, -rollers 
and sprockets of oil, gum. and dirt. KNIVES or other metal 
objects should NOT be used in cleaning. 

(c) The projector should be cleaned thoroughly by QUALI- 
FIED TECHNICIANS at least once a year. 

(d) Film gate, aperture, film channels, rollers and sprockets 
should be cleaned IMMEDIATELY after each use of the projector. 

3. OILING. 

(a) Lubrication is most essential to proper operation of the 
projector. Each projector has an adequate oiling system and 
should be lubricated with the oil : specified by its manufacturer. 
Lubricate sprockets and roller bearings with ONE DROP of oil 
after every 4-hour period of projection. DO NOT use too much 
oil. DO NOT oil a projector when it is loaded with film. OIL IS 
ENEMY OF FILM. 

4. REPLACING AND REPAIRING. 

(a) Replace projector lamps when they burn out or when the 
screen image becomes dim. Exciter lamps have a long life and 
will usually require replacement only if damaged by rough treat- 
ment or over-voltage. 

Ob) FIRST AND SECOND ECHELON REPAIRS are the, re- 
sponsibility of the using unit. Higher echelon repairs are to be 
accomplished by Signal Corps technicians. 

(c) Regular reference to a record of lamp replacement will 
help to eliminate delays in projection service. Each projector 
lamp is rated at 25 hours effective life. To eliminate burnouts, 
the lamp should be replaced after being used 25 hours and used 
lamp put aside for emergency use, with record of its use kept. 

5. PROJECTION. 

(a) Before starting projection, turn on the amplifier and allow 
tube filaments 30 seconds to warm. Turn on projector lamp and 
motor, and gradually turn up sound after picture starts. iCheck 
the projector frequently to make certain that the sprocket teeth 
mesh with the film sprocket holes. Investigation should be made 
immediately of any strange noise in the projector. Noises are an 
indication of trouble. Under no condition should the projector be 
left unattended while in operation. When trouble develops im- 
mediate action is necessary to prevent damage to the film and 
equipment. 

6. FILM DAMAGE, 

(a) Film damage is caused by careless handling and careless 
projector operation. The most common examples of film damage 
and causes are: 

01) Diagonal creasing — usually caused by film running over 

flange of feed sprocket, or by foreign material on 
sprocket shoe or guide roller. 

02) Horizontal creasing— -usually caused by stepping on film. 

Always be sure that film takes up properly during pro- 
jection, so that it does not collect on the floor. 
(3) Scratches on film— usually caused by dirt in film gate or 
dragging pawl," or film dragging on floor, as in "(2)" 



108 



above. Also caused by "cinching" of film during re- 
winding. To prevent this, rewind at constant rate of 
speed' after allowing film to cool properly. 

(4) Enlarged or torn sprocket holes — usually caused by dirty 

•sprockets, lost loops, or excessive film gate tension. 

(5) Sprocket holes on the sound track — caused by incorrect 

threading or the use of sound film on a silent projector. 

(6) [Edge nicks— caused by improperly aligned rewinders. 

(7) If the film breaks', lap the broken end around the take-up 

reel, or repair temporarily, using adhesive tape. Mark 
the break by inserting a small piece of paper in the 
reel. Splice the film as soon as the showing is finished. 
7. RECORDS. 

(a) Each unit should keep a record of films shown, including 
titles, date of showing, condition of film on receipt and on ship- 
ping,, date received and date shipped, audience reaction and 
attendance figures. 



Restricted 
Headquarters 
Services of Supply 
European Theater of Operations 
SUBJECT: 3Smm Cinema Service. 

TO: Commanding General, US Army Air (Forces in the UK 
Commanding General, V Corps 
Base Section Commanders, SOS, ETOUSA 
Headquarters Commandant, SOS, ETOUSA 

1. a. The *War Department, through the Special Service Divis- 
ion, has made available to the theater a limited number of 35mm 
cinema equipments requests for which are to be made to this 
headquarters, through channels. 

b. Issuance of the equipments is subject to the following 
conditions: 

CI) The camp to which issued must be of a permanent or 
semi-perma!hent nature. 

(2) There must be a suitable structure at the camp. 

(3) There must be a sufficient concentration of troops to 

justify the installations. 

2. a. Installation of the equipment must conform to British 
regulations: 

01) The projection booth must be fireproof, and in many 
cases will have to be constructed by personnel of the 
using camp. 

(2) Projectionists must be experienced in the use of the 
equipment, and, particularly, must appreciate the in- 
inflammable nature of 35mm film, 
b. The Cinema Section, office of the Chief of Special Service, 
this headquarters, will advise further regarding such regulations. 

3. a. Coincident with an installation, the Cinema Section, office 
of the Chief of Special Service, this headquarters, will arrange 
through British channels for the supply of 35mm films. 

b. The actual bookings of films will be mad© by the Special 
Service officer of the using camp, and his name should be furn- 



109 



ished to the Cinema Section, office of the 'Chief of Special Service, 
this headquarters 1 , in order that he may be advised as to the 
procedure to be followed and authorized to deal directly with 
the commercial distributors. 

For the Commanding General: 

C. B. LANDON, 

Colonel, AGD, 
Adjutant General. 



STEPS IN INITIATING A " SOLDIER SHOWS " 
PROGRAM AND SUGGESTED T/O 



' (A) 


PRELIMINARY SURVEY. 


1. 


PERSONNEL. , . 


, Check A.G. Form 20 cards. 






Interview Prospects* 


2. 


FACULTIES 








Equipment-Scripts. 





SPECIAL 




SERVICE 




OFFICER 



(B) ANNOUNCEMENT OF ORGANIZATIONAL MEETING 
Bulletin Boards, Theatrical Posters, Pamphlets, Circulars, 
Announcements at Mess. 



1 


(C) 


^ ORGANIZATIONAL MEETING 




1. 


Discussion of Program — Tabulation of 


Personnel and 




facilities available or required. 




2. 


Selection of type of Entertainment in line 


with personnel 




facilities available. 




3. 


Selection of Key men and setting up 


of Production 




organization. 





(SUGGESTED t/o) 
■ 



PROGRAMME DIRECTOR. 
(Probable Produfl^r and Director 
of Shffw) . ' 



J! 



TECHNICAL 
DIRECTOR 

I 



Stage, Equip- 
ment, Scenery, 
Costumes, 
Advertising, 
Posters, etc. 



STAGE 
DIRECTOR 

I 



MUSICAL 
DIRECTOR 



Actors, 

Entertainers, 

Scripts. 



Orchestra and 
Band, Instruments, 
Music Library, 
Arrangements. 



REHEARSALS— PRODUCTION MEETINGS 



PERFORMANCE 



DRESS REHEARSAL. 
(Special Service Officer 
Approval)- 



110 



Illustrated is an Index and Identification system for Special 
Service Officers to use for their Theatrical Script Libraries. 



The first numeral indicates Key to 'types of scripts' and file 
folder. The second numeral identifies particular script. 




KEY TO TYPES OF SCRIPT. 



1 


— 


Manuals ,. 


2 


— 


Skits and Blackouts. 


3 


— 


Parodies 


4 


— 


Original Soldier Revue Material. 


5 


— 


One Act Plays. 


6 


— 


Minstrel Shows 


7 


— 


Radio Scripts. 


8 


— 


Revues 


9 


— '0 


Musical Comedies. 


10 


— o 


Music. 


11 


— i0 


Three Act Plays. 


12 


— 


IMeller' Dramas. 


13 


— 


Quizz. 


14 


— 0- 


Joke File. 



As additional scripts are received they can be allocated in the 
proper folders. In this way, the Library can be kept up to date 
and not become a static operation after the first scripts are 
received. 

Ill 



The following is a list of the type of shows that can be put on 
with and by soldiers in order of simplicity: — 

(2) Vaudeville show, made up of speciality acts, dancers, 
singers, jugglers, magicians, solo instrumentalists augmented 
by small band. This type of show requires very little material, 
and depends almost entirely on the individual talents of the 
speciality acts. 

(2) Revues are made up of speciality acts, and band accom- 
paniment. They are an elaboration of the vaudeville show, 
adding • production numbers and comedy sketches to augment 
the show. 

(3) Minstrel Shows. One of the simplest types of shows 
to produce, enlisting also the greatest mass participation, re- 
quires a few comedians 1 , speciality artistes as end men to sit in 
front row alongside the interlocutor. The men sitting behind 
in the other rows can be of any number and require very 
little theatrical talent. Material and instruction regarding pro- 
duction of minstrel shows is contained in the Theatrical Script 
Library. 

The minstrel show is entirely American in nature, the first 
shows having been created in the United 'States. It is not 
necessary for the cast to put on make-up or burnt cork, an 
example was illustrated in the minstrel part of Irving Berlin's 
show "'This Is The Army." 

(4) Old Fashioned 'Meller' Dramas. 'Meller' dramas are 
very popular in the soldier show program. Not only do the 
actors enjoy playing the romantic hero and the treacherous 
villain, but the audience have a chance to participate by applaud- 
ing and cheering the hero and hissing the villain. Good 
actors are not necessary to play in 'meller' dramas, as an in- 
experienced performer may sometimes be better in these shows 
than an experienced actor. However, care should be taken 
that the over-acting is not carried out to an extreme where 
the cast are having a better time than the audience. These 
shows can be augmented between scenes and acts by gay 
nineties type of barber shop quartets singing old-fashioned 
medleys. Material for these shows are also in the Theatrical 
Script Material. 

(5) Playets, One Act Plays, Plays and Musical Comedies. 
These are the more ambitious type of productions, requiring 
greater perfection in acting and more accurate detail in scenery, 
costumes, props and lighting. Talented technicians can success- 
fully improvise some of these necessary details. For this type 
of shows the cast should be thoroughly rehearsed and perform- 
ances should not be given until perfection has been reached. 



112 



B. Theatrical Script Material. 

A complete folio of theatrical script material can be obtained 
from the Base Section Theatrical Officer. With this script material 
vaudeville shows, minstrel shows, musical revues, 'old-fashioned 
'meller' dramas, one-act plays, playlets and full-length plays can 
be produced. In starting a theatrical , program it may be difficult 
to obtain original show script material, therefore this supply has 
been made available. However, when a soldier show program is 
operating this professional material should not be relied upon as 
the sole source of supply, original writing and composing should 

be encouraged. This can be done by localising incidents, places, 
and characters in the professional script material. This localising 
of material adds a professional touch to show presentation and 
invariably results in greater appreciation by 'the soldier audience. 
The Theatrical Script library also contains manuals and technical 

information on the improvising of scenery, costumes, and electri- 
cal equipment. 



TEMPORARY OR IMPROVISED STAGES. 
The following are a list of suggestions for improvising stages, 
curtains, scenery, and electrical equipment. 

STAGES 
Platforms 

A raised platform can be built 3 feet off the floor with spare 
lumber found in or around any camp. This can be supplemented 
with wood taken from crates. This platform, if built within a 
Nissen Hut, should take in the complete width of the iNissen Hut 
and extend about 10 to 12 feet into the room. 
Mess Tables 

Series of mess tables can be set up to form an adequate acting 
area. 2 or 3' deep and 3 or 4 across. The legs of a table can be 
tied together to give the tops more rigidity. 
Crates 

A series' of crates of uniform size can be set together and 
nailed to the required acting size. Blankets can be hung on the 
front side which is exposed to the audience to conceal any letter- 
ing which may be found on the boxes, and to give it a more 
theatrical effect. 
Tent Floors 

Two or more tent floors can be set up on crates, which act as 
supports and blankets hung on front part which faces the 
audience. . 

(Illustrated in drawings .10, 1,1, 1:2, 13) 
CURTAINS AND DRAPES 

1. To give the above platform a theatrical feeling blankets, 
canvas, sheets, theatrical muslin, or blackout cloth can be hung 
3 or 4 feet wide on each side of the stage. A piece of this fabric, 
li to 2 feet wide, can be hung from the ceiling to meet the two side 
pieces. This will form a picture frame opening, and can be used 
to conceal the border lights and curtain tracks if used. As for 
a background, any of the four above-mentioned materials can be 
hung completely around the stage to conceal the walis. A pair 



113 



SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVISING STAGES, CURTAINS, 
SCENERY, ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT 

STAGES 



(10) P|atfprm Stage 




The best all around stage to 
be constructed in separate 
sections and bolted togethei 
(Note construction in drawing 
shown hete) . 



"All of these improvised 
stages can ba masked 
as shown. 




(13) Tent Floors 

These floors can be nailed 
or bolted to boxes (Note 
bracing as shown in 
drawing). 



114 



>f front curtains can be made with a center opening with "hooks 
or grommets (such as found on shower "curtains) or large 
safety pins spaced about every six inches across the top so that 
the curtain may be made to draw. A wire is strung from both 
sides for this curtain to operate on: This can be done by hand 
or with a pulley arrangement as one finds on window curtains. 
Two or three of these draw curtains can be set on stage three or 
four feet behind one another. This arrangement is very handy 
for setting a scene behind one set of curtains while an act is- 
appearing in front of it. Additional side pieces can be hung on 
stage to conceal lights or entrances of actors. 
2. Set Pieces 

Against the drapery background small props and cutout pieces 
can be set on stage or hung to form a scene. For instance, an 
office scene could be shown with a picture and calendar, with a 
desk and few chairs about. An exterior scene can be made by 
cutting the silhouette of a tree out of a piece of wood or card- 
board and painting it. 
(Illustrated in drawings 20, 21, 22, '23) 
SCENERY 

1. Three fold screens can be made of ply- wood, compot boards, 
or almost any type of construction board. (Each panel can be 
approximately 2£ to 3 feet wide and S to 6 feet high. The neces- 
sary scenes can be painted' on each side of screen. Two or three 
sets, depending on the requirements of the show, can be used. 
These can be changed in full view of the audience by turning 
them around or behind the closed curtains while another scene 
is being played in front. Two sets of these screens can be put 
together to form one large set. 

2. Painted Curtains ~ 

Sheets, blankets, blackout curtains, or theatrical muslin can be 
hung on a wire in two pieces. These can be painted with the 
desired scenic effect. 2 or 3 of these can be hung directly behind 
one another. "When the first scene has served its purpose one half 
can be pulled off to each side, leaving the next scene ready. 
(Illustrated dn drawings 15, 16, 17). 
LIGHTS 

Footlights can be made by mounting sockets 6 inches apart on 
the front part of the stage with a- piece of wood or tin, shielding 
the source of light from the audience. The same arrangements 
can be used for border or overhead lights. Spotlights can be 
made from desk lamps, ordinary lighting fixtures, tin cans, head- 
light reflectors from cars. The important thing to bear in mind 
on the making of a spotlight is to make - certain that the beams 
of light are kept concentrated in order that the particular area 
or actor is brightly lit up. The placing of a coloured gelatin in 
front of these spotlights will help to enhance the theatrical effect. 
These spots should be hung on a pipe overhead directly behind 
the proscenium opening, also on each side of the stage. Two 
spots with large . bulbs and highly concentrated light should be 
placed in the audience at each side of the theater to be used as 
follow spots for any act that may move on stage. 
(Illustrated dn drawings 25, 26 v 27, 28). 



115 



SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVISING STAGES, CURTAINS, 
SCENERY; ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT 



CURTAINS AND DRAPES 




116 



SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVISING STAGES. CURTAINS." 
SCENERY, ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT. . . 

SCENERY 



(20) Screens 




(21) Painted curtains. 




Backdrop shewn in place on stage. 
(Note — any number of drops can he 
used and pulled off for quick 
changes),. 



117 



SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVISING^ STAGES, CURTAINS, 
SCENERY, ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT 

SET PIECES 




INTERIOR. 

Windows and doors can 
be cut from cardboard or 
cloth, etc., and prnned to 
background. 




EXTERIOR. 
Suggested tree shapes 
can be cut from cardboard, 
canvas, wood, etc., and hung from ceiling. Rock 
piles are suggested by draping grey British blanket 
over upturned chairs. 




118 




ARMY PRODUCERS CAN .MAKE THEIR OWN "SPOTS." 

Enterprising soldiers, handy with tools, can make ^ stage spot- 
lights for unit shows by following the diagram above. A tomato, 
spam, or other large-sized can is the main raw material. 

Here we go: take a can (1) 6in. to lOin. in diameter, 8in._ 
to 16in. in length, leaving one end (2) open. Mount a light 
socket (3) to rear or bottom of can (4), Connect electric light 
cord (5) through hole in the side of can (6). The cord should 
be at least 20ft. long, so that the spotlight! can be' used on any 
part of the stage. The cord can be brought to the nearest outlet. 
Mount the can to a piece of wood lin. by 2in. by 18in. (7) with 
either screws or nails. Cut two pieces of tin (8) and mount on 
can as illustrated. This slide is for the purpose of holding a 
color frame (12) and the improvised iris (10). 

Fig. II shows how to make a floor stand for spot-lights. This 
method allows complete flexibility for spotting specific areas. 

By using the pieces "A" and "B" as shown in fig. 11 and illus- 
trated by fig. 13, and adding the two blocks of wood marked "C" 
the spotlight can be used for hanging in the front part of the 
stage or proscenium. Figs 10 and 12 show the method of cutting 
a piece of cardboard for color gelatine holder- and iris, which 
can be used in front of the spotlight by inserting through slot 
(8). A 15G-watt bulb should be the minimum for efficient use. 



119 



CENTER STAGING 




120 



For soldier-theatricals the simplest method of presenting a 
show is through Center Staging — as illustrated — utilizing an 
ordinary room as a theater, maybe in a barn or derelict building, 
without any stage facilities. It's good for spot shows, skits, black- 
outs, comedy quizzes, concerts,' or dramatic playlets with small 
casts, when space, time, and funds are short. 

The players simply do thein stuff at floor-level in the middle of 
the audience, aided, in the musical phase, by a piano or accompany- 
ing instrumentalist. 

Emphasis is on the actor, his movements and script material, 
plus a really intimate relationship with the audience. Players 
should be directed to give out to all sections so that everyone gets 
an equal share of "back." Two aisles must be kept open on 
opposite corners for entrances and exits. 



The Program Director should go through his theatrical script 
library and select material that can be used in small, thirty to 
forty minute, "Capsule" revues. The following are running orders 
of four types of "Capsule" revues, based on material obtained 
from the theatrical script library and made up of casts requiring 
from two to six performers: — 

a. 3-6 MAN SHOW (No. 1) 

1. Opening. 

'Old King Cole' (Script No. 3-1) 

2. Audience participation number. 

'Bugle and the Bird' (Script No. 13-2) 

3. Vocal and instrumental speciality. 
Popular tunes. 

4. Skit. 

Abbott and Costello Routine No. 16 (Script No. 2-37) 

5. Finale. 

One Act Play — "Moonshine" (Script No. 5-3) 

b. 3-6 MAN SHOW (No. 2) 

1. Opening. 

Mr. Gallagher and Mr. Shean (Script No. 3-5) 

2. Skit. 

Abbott and Costello Baseball Routine (Script No. 2-48) 

3. Instrumental and Vocal Speciality. 
Popular tunes. 

4. Audience participation number. 
Truth and Consequence (Script No. 7-1) 

5. Finale. 

Hats. (Script No. 2-3) (With musical background) 



121 



TRUCK STAGES 




Reproduced! from report by Capt. M. K. Cummings, SSO, 16th 
Inf. Regt. 

122 



3-5 MAN SHOW (No. 3) 

1. Opening 

3-5 man Schnitzel-fritz Band (Casey Jones) 

2. Skit. 

Pants on Backward's (2-47) 

3. Vocal and instrumental number. 
Western or Hill-Billy. 

4. Skit. 

'In the Ozarks' (Script No. 2-23) 

5. Audience participation number. 

'Truth and Consequence' (Script No. 7-1) 

6. Finale. 
Square dance. 

, 2-6 MAN SHOW (No, 4) 

1. Opening. 

"I'm in the ETO." (Script No, 3-4) 

2. Audience participation number. 
'Sergeant Swami' (Script No. 4-1) 

3. Vocal. 
Popular tunes. 

4. Speciality Act. 

Juggler," Magician, Dancer, Chalk-talk, etc. 

5. Finale. 

Vocal and community singing — Army Song Kits. 



123 



SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVISING STAGES 




BLITZ STACE 



124 



SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVISING STAGES 




SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVISING STAGES 




by trees if possible. Blankets hung on 
wire with center entrances." 




126 



BRITISH WELCOME CLUBS 
Special Service Officers should know of \he facilities offered by- 
various British agencies for the establishment of "British Welcome 
Clubs." The clubs enjoy special privileges from the Ministry of 
Food with regard to the allocation of supplies, and also can draw 
small grants from the Ministry of Information for the establish- 
ment of premises. The general idea behind them is to • provide a 
location with small games, and something to eat, where the local 
British residents can meet with members of the American forces 
and where dances can be held at which members of our forces 
can meet members of the opposite sex in the community; 

The use of these clubs is particularly valuable in areas -where 
other facilities, such as the American Red Cross, are absent. One 
of the main British agencies in their establishment is the WVS 
(Women's Voluntary Service), which enjoys a semi-official 
position and is ready to offer any assistance to members of the 
United States Forces. 

Special Service Officers can get the address of the nearest 
branch by writing to HQ, WVS, 41, Tothill Street, London, S.W. 
These clubs are also established through the agency of the English 
Speaking Union, local authorities such as mayors and town and 
county clerks, and local hospitality committees. For further 
Information write to Special Service Division, HQ, ETO, APO 887, 
Attention Facilities Branch. 

From Reecap. 



BRITISH CIVILIAN AGENCIES COOPERATING IN 

HOME HOSPITALITY AND ANGLO-AMERICAN RELATIONS 

THE ENGLISH-SPEAKING UNION Branches in most towns of 

reasonable size. For in- 
formation write: 
Mrs. Phyllis C. Biscoe, 

Secretary 
The English-Speaking Union 
Dartmouth House, 
37, Charles Street, 
Berkeley Sq., London, W.l. 

MINISTRY OF INFORMATION Regional offices, whose 

address can be obtained 
from local British Welfare 
Officer, or by writing: 
Gerv-ase Huxley, Esq., 
Ministry of Information, 
Malet St., London, W.C.I. 

WOMEN'S VOEUNTARY SERVICES Branches throughout the 

UK in almost all towns 
and villages. For in- 
formation write: 
Mrs. E. Dunbar, 
Overseas Division, 
Women's Voluntary Services 
41, Tothill St., London, S.W.I 



127 



FUNCTIONAL CHART 
SPECIAL SERVICE 
COMPANIES (ETO) 



PAMDiUV unc 

GUMrANY Hyo. 

Administration 
Supply 
Motor 
Mess 






HQ. MOBILE UNIT 

1 6m. ra. Field 
Projector 







EDUCATION SEC 

Libraries 
News 
Bulletins 
"Army Talks" 
Orientation 
U S A F 1 



PLATOON HQS. 

Administration 
Supply 



PLATOON HQS. 



PLATOON HQS. 



ATHLETIC SEC. 

Promotes . . . 

Mass 

Athletics 

Competitions 

Instruction 

Repair 



CINEMA SEC. 
Shows . . . 
Features 
G.l. Movies 
Training 
Films 
Circulates 
Films 



1st 

MOBILE UNIT 
I6m.m. Field 
Projector 



RADIO P.A. SEC 

Provides . . . 
Recorded Music 
Transcribed 
Progams 
Radio Programs 
Address Systems 
Minor Radio 
Repairs 



MUSIC SEC. 

Organizes and 
Provides . . . 
Dance Bands 
Music Groups 
Promotes . . . 

Soldier Sings 
Distributes . . . 

Small Instrument; 
Repairs Instruments 



' S3 

MOBILE UNIT, 
1 6m.m. Field 
Projector 



373 

MOBILE UNIT 
1 6m.m. Field 
Projector 



4* : 

'MOBILE UNIT 
16m.m. Field 
Projector 



THEATRICAL SEC 

Organizes and 
Provides .... 
Variety Shows 
Skits 

"Blackouts" 
Make-up Kits 
Costumes 
Technical 
Advice 



PLATOON HQS. 



(T/O 28-17) 



OFFICERS 



ENLISTED MEN 



GWS/rs. 

Headquarters _ ; 

Services of Supply 
European Theater or Operations 
United States Army 
Special Service Division 

APO 887 
7 Jan. 1944 

SUBJECT: Supplementary Training Guide. 
TO: Special Service Company Commanders.- 

1. MISSION— The mission of the Special Service Company 
(T/O 28 — 17) is to assist Unit Special Service Officers in organizing 
and operating their program of athletic, recreational, and educa- 
tional activities. 

2. In order to accomplish 'this mission 100%, it is necessary that 
(a) Every man in the Company should: 

(1) Be able to handle several different assignments. 

(2) Be able to operate a motion picture projector. 

(3) Possess an ETC Driver's Permit. 

(b) Every Non-Corn, in reality, be a Special Service Officer. 

3. Complete, efficient service at all times demands 'that every 
officer and enlisted man be conscious of the irreplaceable value of 
the equipment, realizing the necessity of daily maintenance and 
careful handling wihen moving. 

4. The identity of the Special Service Company -will not be lost, 
and pla'toons and similar groupings of Special Service Company 
personnel will always operate under the technical control of the 
Company Commander who, in turn, is responsible to the Chief of 
Special Service, Hq SOS, through channels. All special Service 
Companies in the UK are assigned to SOS. 

MOTION PICTURE TECHNICIAN. 

1. The mission of the motion picture section is to give 'the best 
motion picture service to as many enlisted men as possible. To 
accomplish this mission the motion picture technicians' duties fall 
chiefly under the following categories: — 

(a) Proper care and maintenance of equipment and film. 

(b) Efficient operation of equipment. 

(c) Efficient operation of film library. 

(d) Training of other operators. 

2. CARE AND MAINTENANCE— EQUIPMENT. — Equipment 
and spare parts are limited and therefore too much emphasis 
cannot be placed on 'the proper care and maintenance of those 
on hand. Each technician should study his equipment, know 
it thoroughly, and be able to effect minor repairs. Technicians 
should realize their own limitations and not attempt repairs beyond 
their abilities. Projectors should be kept properly lubricated 
(manufacturers' chart) and clean at all times. Before each show- 
ing the following routine should be carried out: — 

(a) Wipe off surplus oil. 



129 



(b) Clean film channel and film path, including aperture 
gate and impedance roller (do not use metal or anything that may- 
scratch surfaces. Carbon tetro-chloride may be used if dry cloth 
is not satisfactory). 

(c) Clean lenses with soft dry material. 

(d) Remove and clean projector lamp. 

(e) Check all tubes, fuses, and photo-electric cells to make 
sure they are firmly seated, that there are no loose connections. 

(f) Check all moving parts for proper operation. 

The technician must also understand thoroughly the proper use 
of generators and transformers and check them before each per- 
formance, making sure they are wired correctly and that generators 
are in proper running order with sufficient fuel". 

Technicians should keep a constant check on spare parts and 
supplies, know source of supply and where major repairs can be 
made. 

3. FILM. — Technicians should check film immediately upon 
receipt, cut out all damaged sprocket holes and remove all oil 
and dirt. Before despatching film it should be rechecked and 
restored to good condition. Films should be collected and 
despatched according to schedule and never be allowed to lay 
over longer than necessary. 

4. OPERATION. — Special care should be exercised in the 
presentation of the show so that the best possible entertainment 
results. Technicians should do their utmost to present shows on 
time and make full use of all facilities available. A rehearsal 
("tune-up") should precede each sihow to make sure that electrical 
supply is suitable, projectors are operating properly, volume and 
frequency controls are in correct positions, picture is in focus, and 
there is a sufficient loop above and below the gate. In presenting 
the show sound should be brought in gradually and turned off as 
soon as the sound track ends. (Projector lamp should be switched 
off when the picture fades. Showmanship will add to the enter- 
tainment of the men, and the technician should make use of all 
facilities available, such as: — 

(a) Turntables to play suitable music before and after 
shows, and during intermissions (fade in and out). 

(b) (Placing screen ihigh enough for all to see picture. 

(c) Raising projectors to shoot over audience. 

(d) Place projectors so that screen is completely filled. 

(e) Use black drops around screen or on wall behind 
screen to kill any overlapping of picture and produce a better 
effect. 

(f ) 'Improve acoustics iby use of felt or blankets at each end 
of hall, particularly behind speakers. 

(g) iPlace speakers near screen (never on floor). If per- 
forated screen is used, place speaker a few inches behind center 
of screen twq-thirds of the way up. 

(h) Check seating arrangement. Audience should ■see 
picture under comfortable conditions. (Run extra shows if over- 
crowded). 



130 



(i) 'Announce coming attractions, and see that they are 
informed by advance posters and notices on bulletin boards. 

5. TRAINING OF OTHER OPERATORS.— This is a part of the 
duties of the technician that must not be overlooked. (For the 
■benefit of every soldier in the army it is important that each man 
who operates a projector be as highly trained as possible. Many 
organizations have their own projectors but, too frequently, poorly- 
trained operators result in a short life for the projector and the 
film. By training these projectionists to do a good job the 
technician is helping the overall mission of the motion picture 
section and is helping, also, his own position by improving the 
condition of the film returned by these organizations. The good 
technician will also familiarise 'himself with all types of projectors, 
so that he can be of service in repairing projectors of other 
organizations which may not be operating properly, or which may 
be damaging film. 

THEATRICAL TECHNICIAN. 

1. The mission of the Theatrical Technician is to promote and 
produce soldier shows. Entertainment by the soldiers for their 
fellow camp-mates instills a camp spirit in the performer and 
audience alike. It is up to the theatrical technician to keep the 
Special Service Officer and the Unit Commander interested by the 
infusion of new ideas. He should be imaginative, patient, alert, 
and, at all times, aggressive and enthusiastic. Also, he must 
possess or develop ability as an entertainer, director, stage 
manager, scenery designer and painter, make-up man, and script- 
writer, all in one. Wherever possible he will assign these duties 
to personnel in the camp being serviced. 

2. SECURING OF TALENT — 

(a) 'Sell theatricals to the Special Service Officer and the 
Unit Commander. 

(b) Names of men with entertaining ability can be secured 
from the classification cards, under heading 12. 

(c) A Master of Ceremonies, with the P.A. System, 
recordings, musical kit instruments, and two or three planned 
variety numbers, has proven successful as a means of obtaining 
audience participation in impromptu shows, thus building up a 
talent roster and helping to activate a self-sufficient soldier shows' 
program. 

(d) Bulletin Board notices and notices read at formations. 
Announcements made preceding motion pictures. 

3. PROGRAM:— ' 

(a) Music, dancers, juggling .'acts, magical acts and skits* 
singers and other speciality numbers, sometimes preceded by group 
singing are basically highly acceptable to soldier audiences and 
performers alike. 

(b) The M.C. sets the pace for the entire show and is vital 
to the success of each part. He should be selected from the troops 
being serviced, if possible, and have the following attributes 



131 



(1) Good voice;* ( ! 2) Sense of humor, and tempo; 03) Story-telling 
ability; (4) Natural leadership and showmanship; (5) Ability to 
handle new and unforeseen happenings in show. 

(c) A steady diet of the same kind of entertainment will 
soon bore all concerned and decrease the interest of the men in 
general. One type of show, well done, leads into the production 
of something a little different. The order of progression will 
depend upon each group of men and where 'their interest seems to 
lead. The following types and type- combinations of camp 
theatricals are suggested: — Variety shows, floor shows "for 
dancers," minstrel shows, one-act plays, amateur night, Quiz con- 
tests, "Kangaroo-Court," shadow plays, handies, charades, liars' 
contest. 

4. A number of 'theatrical technicians have been very successful 
in arranging exchange of shows between camps, and, Where the 
camps are adjacent to towns and villages, exchanging soldier shows 
for civilian shows. 

It is recommended that in order to avoid any embarrassment 
both to the performers and the soldiers, the theatrical technician 
witness the civilian shows before presenting them in the camps. 

5. Materials.— One-act plays, sketches, black-outs, quiz pro- 
grams, minstrel shows, etc., can be requisitioned through the 
various base sections to Special Service Division Hq SOS, APO 887. 

MUSIC TECHNICIAN. 

1. Every camp has men who can play some musical instrument, 
or sing. It is the mission of the Music Technician to promote 
opportunities for these men to entertain themselves and their 
fellow-soldiers. He organizes quartets, glee clubs, and develops 
song leaders. Contingent upon instruments available, he organizes 
camp orchestras and novelty bands. Once the group is organized 
one of the members develops as the natural leader. 

2. The Music Technician must be able to play, with ability, one 
instrument, preferably the piano. He should understand the use 
of the instruction books and assist the men in learning how to 
play the instruments in "D" kit, particularly the harmonica, 
tonette, and ocarina. He should be able 'to lead a soldier ''sing," 
and develop camp song leaders. . He should know how to use the 
repair kit and repair parts in the "D" kit to repair most of the 
instruments in the. kit. - 

3. I't is essential that the Music Technician and the Theatrical 
Technician wor.k together closely in the developing and promoting 
of soldier entertainment. 

LIBRARY TECHNICIAN. 

The primary mission of the Library Technician is to, see that 
men in the units serviced by the platoon have an adequate supply 
of appropriate reading materials. In addition, it is expected that 
the Library Technician will assist, both within his own Special 
Service Company and in the units serviced, in the promotion of all 
educational activities. 



132 



2. Duties of Library Technician:— 

(a) Distribution and rotation of library books and other 
reading materials among units in areas serviced. 

■.(b) Counsel and assistance to officers and men regarding 
policy and procedures in all matters pertaining to educational 
activities. 

(c) Inspection of orderly rooms, day-rooms, libraries and 
Red Cross Clubs, with respect to availability of books, magazines, 
The Stars and Stripes, Yank, Army Talks, Newsmap, and other - 
educational materials. 

(d) Conducting group meetings of enlisted personnel in 
units for the purpose of training discussion leaders. 

(e) Training of enlisted personnel of Special Service 
Companies in all matters relating to Army Education Program. 
(Each man in the Company should be informed about 'the whole 
range , of Special Service Activities in order to be of the greatest 
assistance to officers and men in units served). 

ATHLETIC TECHNICIAN. 

1. The mission of the Athletic Technician is to promote a well- 
balanced athletic program that will keep the soldier physically fit 
and mentally alert, and develop the competitive spirit within and 
between the camps. 

2. Duties of Athletic Technician are: — 

(a) Be familiar with the basic rules of all sports and be 
able to play, _ coach, officiate at most of these sports. 

v (b) Make a survey of athletic facilities within his area and 
work With the Unit Special Service Officers in the use of these 
facilities. - 

(c) Promote tournaments in the camps, with play-offs for 
area championships. . ' 

(d) Assist Unit SS Officers when called upon to lay-out 
athletic fields, courts, etc. 

{e) Conduct continuous educational program as to proper 
handling and maintenance of athletic equipment. Use the repair 
kit in the "A-l" to maintain and make equipment repairs. 

(/) Organize daily exercise period for men in his platoon. 

DUPLICATING MACHINE OPERATION. 

1. The mission of the Duplicating Machine Operator is to 
publicize effectively Special Service activities. The success of the 
Special Service is measured by the number of participants and 
spectator attendance. Weekly bulletins listing the Special Service 
activities and neat, cleverly illustrated announcements of events 
to come are effective if wisely distributed and posted. Mentioning 
the names of the people participating pleases the performers, 
encourages new talent, new ideas, and personalizes the bulletin. 

2. Duties of the Duplicating Machine Operator are: 

(a) Daily maintenance of equipment. 

(b) Screen all requests as to value of material and number 
of copies. 



133 



SPECIAL 
SERVICE 
DIVISION 



CHIEF OF DIVISION 



DEPUTY 
SPECIAL SERVICES 



DEPUTY OF DIVISION 



EXECUTIVE 



OVERSEAS* 
PLANNING 



D PHASE 
EDUCATION 
PLANNING 



LIAISON 
871 



EDITORIAL 
AND 
POLICY 
CO-ORDINATOR 



DEPUTY 
MORALE SERVICES 



SUPPLY 

AND 
FISCAL 




American 
Forces 

Network 
(Radio) 



r 



Education 
(USAFI) 



Orienta- 
tion 



MAY 1944 



Stars 
and fl 
"Stripes 



(c) Submit approved request to platoon commander for 
final approval before running off on the stencil. 

(d) Maintain efficient distribution and posting of bulletins. 
Camp newspapers are not authorized in the ETO. The Stars 

and Stripes and Yank are the "official Army publications. 
SUMMARY. 

The preceding material has stressed the importance of every 
man in 'the company knowing his job thoroughly. It (has 
emphasised that every man in the company should be able to 
handle several assignments; be able to operate a motion picture 
projector; possess an ETO Driver's Permit, and realize the 
necessity of efficient maintenance and handling of equipment. 

Also of equal importance is "improvising." Improvisation must 
play a 'big role in carrying out the Special 'Service program in 
ETO. Every man in the company must develop the ability to 
improvise and constantly be exercising this ability with the work 
of his own section. In turn, the 'technician encourages and assists 
the Unit Special Service Officer in improvising. 

IFOR THE CHIEF OF SPECIAL SERVICE 
„ EDWARD G. HUEY, 
Major, Inf. 
Executive Officer. 

SOME SPECIAL SERVICE DIVISION REFERENCES. 

1. FM 101-5 (Par. 39 3/4) 

2. MR 1-10 

3. Regimental Special Service Officers Guide 

(tentative) 1 July 1942. 

4. FM 28-105 
"5. TM 21-220 

6. TM 21-205 

7. Hq SOS, Cir. No. 63, 23 Nov 1943 (Par. 5b (7) 

8. Services of Supply — Organization Manual, 

15 Feb 1943, WD. Section 302.05 



FM 101-5 

39-3/4. SPECIAL SERVICE OFFICER. — a. Adviser to the 
commander and staff in matters pertaining to morale, 
welfare, recreation, npnmilitary education, orientation, and 
information. 

b. Stimulation and coordination of. factors enumerated in a 
above. 

c. Development of those actviities not specifically assigned 
other staff officers which promote good morale and combat' 
unfavorable morale. 

d. Coordination, under direction of the commander^ with 
civilians and civilian agencies on matters relative to recreation 
and welfare of troops. 

e. Recommendations to commanders concerning expenditures 
from "Welfare of Enlisted Men, *Army" funds, or other funds 
available for the welfare and recreation of enlisted men. 

(A.G. 062.11 (5-26-42).) (C 3, July 27, 1942.) 



135 



COPY. 

WAR DEPARTMENT. 
Circular 261. Washington 25, D.C. 20 October 1943. 

Section 

TABLE OF ORGANIZATION— Special service personnel . . 1 
UNIT — Orientation officer, function and duty 11 

I. TABLE OF ORGANIZATION. 1. Section II, Circular No. 
199, War Department, 1942 as amended by section III, Circular 
No. 229,, and section IV, Circular No. 303, War Department, 1942, 
is rescinded. 

2. The current policy relative to the authorization of special 
service personnel in tables of organizations and tactical units is 
announced in the following War Department publications: 

a. Letter (A.G. 320.3 (16 Sept 43) OB-I-WDGCT-M), The 
Adjutant General's Office, 21 September 1943. 

b. Memorandum No. W310-9-43, 22 March 1943, as amended. 
(A.G.320.3 (9 Oct 43). 1 

II. UNIT. 1. In order to accomplish the objectives and intent 
of MR1-10, 5 March 1943, relating to the responsibility of all 
commanders for the morale and state of mind of their command. 
Tables of Organization of regiments and equivalent units have 
been changed to include an orientation officer in the grade of 
captain (see letter (A.G.320.3 (16 Sept. 43) OB-I-WDGCT-M), 21 
September 43). 

_ 2. Pending publication of changes to FM 101-5, 19 August 1940, 
the following will govern: 

a. Mission. — To create and maintain in every officer and 
enlisted man a feeling of individual responsibility for participation 
in the war and to strengthen his efficiency _a_s a soldier by 
increasing his understanding as to why We fight, keeping him 
informed as to the course of the war and news of the world, and 
giving him an opportunity to add to his effectiveness through 
off-duty individual or group study. 

b. Duties. 

(1) General.— To study and report' through staff channels 
to the commanding officer on training conditions 
affecting morale within the command. 

(2) Orientation. 

(a) To conduct the training program known as the 

Army Orientation Course. 

(b) To obtain, through channels from higher 

echelons, such definitions of the military mission 
as, are related to orientation. 
Gc) To assist in or conduct for unit commanders 
the instruction, guidance, and preparation of 
(material for use in orientation meetings and 
other related activities. 



136 



(d) To maintain a current orientation center or 
centers containing files and library material 
relating to the subject matter of orientation. 

(e) To provide material relating to orientation to 

camp or unit newspapers. 

(f) To maintain liaison with other staff officers on 
matters affecting morale. 

(g) To arrange for and present lectures and motion 

picture showings relative to orientation. 

(h) To obtain materials for and disseminate news 
summaries. 

(i) To organize and provide for conducting, or 
' iconduct, orientation meetings for staff officers. 

(2) Information. 

(a) To arrange that the information services and 

(facilities made available by the War Depart- 
ment are used to the fullest extent. 

(b) To supervise and cooperate in the publication 
of unit newspapers and utilization of camp 
newspaper service and Army News Service. 

(c) To supervise the operation of radio, public 
address and carrier installations, utilizing War 
Department radio transcriptions, Army News 
Service, and special programs. 

(d) To arrange the showing of information films in 
compliance with War Department directives. 

(e) To arrange proper distribution of guides to 

foreign countries, pamphlets relating to orienta- 
tion, and similar material. 

(f) To arrange circulation and display of orienta- 
tion posters. 

(3) Education. 

(a) To arrange educational program available to 
personnel' in off-duty time and to obtain 
instructors. 

(b) To -facilitate -the enrollment of personnel in the 
program' offered by the United States Armed 
Forces Institute, and to give publicity within 
the command to the Institute program, including 
instruction by correspondence and through self- 

- (teaching materials, and arrangements for 

academic credit with high schools and colleges. 

(c) To arrange for the regular showing of "GI 
movies." 

(c) Qualifications. 

(1) The orientation officer will be selected on the 
basis of his interest in presenting the justice of the 
cause for which we fight. He will be well acquainted 
with the facts concerning the causes, issues, and 
course of the war. 



137 



(2) He will preferably be a college graduate and possess 
the ability to present his views clearly and 
convincingly. 

(3) Whenever practicable, he will be selected from 
among the officers already assigned to the unit or 
organization in which he will serve. Experience as 
a company commander is especially desirable. 

(A.G.320.3 (30 Sep 43). 
BY ORDER OF THE SECRETARY OF WAR : 

G. C. MARSHALL, 

Chief of Staff. 

Official: 
J. A. ULIO, 

Major General, 

The Adjutant General. ■ 

Hq SOS USAPP 11-43/9M/17722 



RESTRICTED 
EXTRACT 

Circular, WAR DEPARTMENT 

No, 287 Washington 25, D.C. 8 Nov. 1943 

UNIT— Athletic and Recreation Officer Ill 

III — UNIT — 1. In order to accomplish the objective and intent 
of MR. 1-10, 5 March 1943, relating to the responsibility of all 
commanders for the morale of their command, Tables of Organiza- 
tions of regiments and equivalent units have been changed to 
include a Special Service Officer, with the designation Athletic 
and Recreation Officer (see letter A.G. 3i20.3 (116 Sept. 1043) 
OB-1-WDGCTtM, 21 September 1943, as amended by letters 8 
October 1943 and 22 October 1943, same class and subject). 

2. Pending publication of changes to FM 101-5* 19 August 1940, 
the following will govern: 

a. Mission. — To increase the military effectiveness of officers 
and enlisted men through planned programs of physical training, 
athletics, recreation, and welfare activities. 

b. Duties. 

(1) General. — To study and report through staff channels 
to commanding officers on conditions and facilities affecting 
athletic, recreation, and welfare activities. 

(2) Athletics. 

(a) To maintain liaison with other ;staff officers on 
matters pertaining to physical fitness. 

(b) To assist in the proper development and execution oi 
a unit physical fitness program. 

(c) To organize and coordinate athletic activities within 
regiments or equivalent units. 



138 



(d) To plan and develop athletic fields and insure their 
maximum use. 

(e,) To secure and maintain athletic equipment and to 
provide for its most equitable distribution. 

(3) Recreation. 

(a) To stimulate interest an and supervise production of 
soldier shows, and to distribute materials provided by the 
War Department for this purpose. 

(b) To encourage soldier participation in off-duty music 
activities both vocal and instrumental, and to distribute 
materials provided by the War Department, for this purpose. 

(c) To insure the maximum use of available recreational 
facilities, obtain through channels such funds and equipment 
authorized by the War Department relative thereto, and to 
maintain an accurate accounting of all appurtenances 
purchased for use therein. 

(d) To assist in providing facilities and equipment for 
off-duty participation of soldiers in hobbies and handicrafts. 

(4) Welfare.— To serve as consultant in welfare matters 
which involve the Red Cross, USO, Federal Security Agency, 
and other Federal and local welfare agencies outside the 
War Department. . 

c. Qualifications. — The Athletic and -Recreation Officer will 
have — 

(1) Actively participated in athletics or have had experience 
in coaching or physical education. 

(2) The necessary cultural and educational background to 
equip him for the supervision and encouragement of enter- 
tainment and musical programs. 

(3) Initiative, organizational ability, and a thorough under- 
standing of and sympathy with the welfare problems of 
enlisted personnel. 

-RESTRICTED 

SOURCE OF MATERIAL FOR ATHLETIC AND RECREATION 
OFFICERS. 

1. F.M 21-20— Physical Training. 

2. TM 21-205— Special Service Officer. 

3. TM 21-220— Sports and Games. 

4. WDTC No. 287— 8/11/43— Athletic and Recreation Officer. 
5 WDTC No. 27— 8/lll/4t2— Physical Training. 

6. Books that may be requisitioned through Special Service 
Division. 

(a) 'Sports for Recreation— Mitchell. 

(b) Sports and Games — Kieth. 

(c) Games — Bancroft. 

(d) The Barnes Dollar Sports Library— Volley Ball, Basket- 
ball, Boxing, Wrestling, Swimming, Track and Field. 



139 



Restricted 
Headquarters RPF/WWR/ebe 
European Theater op Operations 
United States Army 

AG 320.5 MGC 4 October 1943 

SUBJECT: Special Service Officers in Tables of Organization 
of Regiments. 

TO: Commanding Generals: 

SOS, ETOUSA, 
Eighth Air Force, 
First Army, j 
V Corps, 

Iceland Base Command. 

e ■ 

Commanding Officers: 

. European Wing, Air Transport Command, 
24th Army Airways Communications 

Squadron, # 
U.S. Assault Training Center, ETOUSA, 
American School Center, 
Special Troops, ETOUSA. 

War Department AGO letter AG 320.3 (16 Sep 43) 
OB-1-WDGCT-M, dated' 21 September 1943, subject as above, is 
quoted for your information and guidance: 

"1. Reference is made jto memorandum of the Chief of Staff, 
U.S. Army, dated 3 September 1943, file WDGSA 330.14 (3 Sep 43), 
no subject. 

2. Pending publication of changes in tables of organization, you 
are authorized to provide special service officers for units and 
installations under your control in accordance with the attached 
copy of letter, this office, AG 320.3 (16 Sep 43) OB-1-WDGCT-M, 
21 September 1943, subject as above. This authority will not be 
used for promotion of officers. Requisitions may be submitted 1 for 
additional officers for table of organization units if you do not have 
properly qualified officers available. There may be some, delay in 
filling these requisitions with qualified officers. Requests for 
increase in allotments of officers for this purpose will be submitted 
to the War Department with justification therefor." 

By command of Lieutenant General DEVERS: 

1 Incl: RICHARD P. FISK 

Inch 1, WD AGO' letter, AG 320.3 Lt. Colonel, A.G.D. 

(16 Sep 43) OB-1-WDGCT-M- Assistant Adjutant General 
dated 21 September 1943. 



140 



COPY 

RESTRICTED 
WAR DEPARTMENT 

The Adjutant General's Office 
Washington, 25, D.C. 

AG 320.3 (16 Sep 43) 21 September 1943 

OB-rl-WDGCT-M 

SUBJECT: Special Service Officers in Tables of Organization 
of Regiments. 

TO. Commanding Generals, 

Army Ground Forces 
Army Air Forces 

Army Service" 6 Forces , ~ 

1. Reference is made to memorandum of the Chief of Staff, U.S. 
Army, dated 3 September 194S~, file WDGSA 330.14 (3 Sep 43), no 
subject. 

2. In order to effectuate the necessary changes in tables of 
organization of regiments and equivalent organizations, the follow- 
ing instructions will govern: 

a. Groups and Headquarters Division Artillery will be con- 
sidered as equivalent to -regiments. 

b. One special senvice officer, branch immaterial, in the grade 
,qf 1st lieutenant will be included in each regiment or equivalent 
unit as assistant S-l with notation under the "Remarks" columns 
— "Assistant S-l, athletic and recreation officer." Where there is 
no S-l provided' by table of organization, this officer will be 
included as an assistant to the officer provided in c. below. 

c. One special service officer, branch immaterial, in the grade 
. of captain will be included in each regiment or equivalent unit 
•as assistant S-3 with notation under the "Remarks" column — 
"Assistant S-3, orientation officer." 

d. One special service, officer, branch immaterial, in the grade 
of captain will be included in the headquarters of the Armored 
Division, in. addition to the four special service officers presently 
provided, with notation under the "Remarks'' column — "Divisional 
orientation officer." ' ■ 

e. (1) Allotments for post, camps and stations having a troop 

population of 2,000 or more not included in table of 
organization units (AR 310-60) will' include not less 
than two (2) special service officers, branch immaterial. 
One will be designated as athletic and recreation 
officer and be in the grade of not less than 1st lieu- 
tenant. The other will be designated as orientation 
officer and be in the grade of not less than captain. In 
case the number of troops is too lange for the efficient 
functioning of these officers, the number may be in- 
creased, with commensurate distribution of ranks, as 
considered' appropriate by the responsible commander 



141 



controlling the allotment to the particular activity- 
concerned. 

(2) In posts, camps and stations having a troop population 
of less than 2,000 not included in table of organization 
units, one officer will be designated^ by the post com- 
mander as , special service officer in" addition to other 
duties. 

3. Officers now in the grade of captain and assigned to regi- 
ments, groups and station complements as special service 
officers who are qualified as athletic and recreation officers may be 
assigned to the new position provided! for such officers and carried 
as surplus in grade until absorbed by normal attrition. No such 
officer will be relieved or reassigned solely because his grade is in 
excess of current authorization. 

4. The Commanding General, Army Service Forces, will prepare 
and submit to the Assistant Chief of Staff, G-l, WDGS, the neces- 
sary changes to army regulations, field and technical manuals and 
War Department memoranda to incorporate these changes in 
organization and carry out the provisions of referenced directive 
as to functions of officers. Strict observance will be given to 
following sound staff procedure and established channels of com- 
mand in the conduct of special service activities. 

5. Changes in tables of organization and allotments and publica- 
tions required by paragraph 4 above will be accomplished at an 
early date. 

By order of the Secretary of Wan: 

/s/ D. T. Sapp, 
Adjutant General. 

Restricted 
Headquarters 
Services of Supply 
European Theater of Operations 

APO 871 

AG 330.11 015 Jul 1943) PGA 15 Jul 1943 

SUBJECT: Information as to Troop Morale and Opinions. 

TO: Commanding General, Eighth Air Force 

Commanding General, V Corps 
Commanding General, 29th Infantry Division 
Commander, European Wing, Air Transport Command 
Commandant, American School Center 
Base Section Commanders, SOS, ETO 
Headquarters Commandant, SOS, ETO 
1. The Research Section, Office of the Chief of Administration, 
this headquarters, has been , established' to provide the major 
commands in the theater with accurate information on the status 



142 



of troop' morale and adjustment. The statistical services to be 
provided by the Section will be separate and distinct in function 
from all other theater statistical services. 

2. Low morale impairs Army efficiency and wastes manpower. 
Tihe manpower which would otherwise thus be lost may be in- 
creasingly retained in effective use as accurate information on 
the status of morale and the factors responsible for its elevation 
and depression is made known. Commanders, when they know 
precisely how their functions and activities affect the soldier, can 
more soundly guide their future policy determination. The means 
for securing this information now exists in. well-established 
survey of opinion techniques. 

3. The Research Section can collect information and make 
reports on: ' 

a. Status of Troop Morale. This can be done by periodic 
planning surveys designed to measure morale . and to keep 
abreast of troop thinking. Planning surveys can make inform- 
ation available on:. 

(1) The amount of interest and effort men are exerting to 

to achieve the Army goal. 

(2) The factors which lessen interest and effort. 

(3) The different ways of handling these factors in the various 

units and the relative effectiveness of each in promoting 
high morale. 

(4) The -effectiveness of programs instituted to better morale 

in the Army. 

b. Troop Reactions and Opinions, Potential or Actual, with 
respect to Policies, Events, and Conditions: This can be done by 

special surveys designed to study in detail any subject, either 
of general interest or of local and limited interest. Special 
surveys, for example, can make available information on: 

(1) Anglo-American relations. 

(2) Opinions on 'various means of soldier savings. 

(3) Matters peculiar to special groups, such as SOS personnel, 

negro troops, NCO's, air combat crews, rangers, etc. 

(4) Attitudes toward our enemies, allies, the war, the home 

front and' post-war problems. 

(5) 'Soldier problems incident to combat and preparation for 

combat. 

(>6) Attitudes toward the various aspects of Army life, such 
as food, clothing, shelter, medical care, etc. 

(7) Troop reactions to new policies and programs, 

such as leave policy, the educational program, military, 
technical and physical training programs, etc. 

(8) Job satisfaction. 

c. Troop Habits. Information on this subject can be obtained 
either by surveys or by reports from units through channels. 



143 



Examples of such studies are: 

(1) Amount of pay retained fey troops. 

(2) Use of Red Cross Clubs. 

(3) Radio listening habits. 

4. The Research Section collects information directly from the 
soldiers themselves under conditions of friendly anonymity. A. 
representative cross-section of soldiers from a number of stations 
write their answers to carefully-tested questions. This assures 
frank, honest, responses and permits, through statistical analysis, 
an accurate over-aR picture of soldier thinking on the subject. 

5... The services of the Research Section are available to all 
major organizations and staff sections in the theater. Recommen- 
dations for surveys on any matters relating to soldier opinion will 
be addressed to the Commanding General, SOS, ETO. 

By order of the Theater Commander: 

S/- C. R. LANDON, 

Colonel, A.G.D. 
Adjutant General. 



Restricted 
European Theater of Operations 
United" States Army 

RPF/RFB/sb 
APO 887 

AG 352/2 OpGA 27 April 1944 

SUBJECT: Short Courses at Oxford and Cambridge Universities. 
TO: Commanding Generals: 

First US Army Group 

US Strategic Air Forces in Europe 

Each Army, ETOUSA 

Base Section Commanders, SOS, ETOUSA 

1. Oxford University: A continuous series of weekly courses 
will be given at Oxford University for American military per- 
sonnel on leave and furlough. The courses will start on Mondays 
at 1600 hours and continue through the following Saturdays at 
1200 hours. The series will begin on Monday, 15 May 1944. 

2. Cambridge University: Cambridge University has announced 
a series of short courses for US Army personnel on leave or 
furlough. The courses will begin on Mondays at 1600 hours and 
continue through the following Saturdays at 1200 hours. The 
opening dates are 22 May 1944; 5 June 1944; 10 and . 24 July, 1944; 
7 August .1944. 

3. Each course will survey a wide range of problems of a 
general nature. Outstanding men of the Universities will lecture 
on the classics, economics, law, politics, religion, and science. The 
courses are open to ANC and WAC personnel. 



144 



4. Who may apply: 

a. Members of air crew eligible for leave or furlough. 

b. Members of all forces in US Army hospitals who are in 
convalescent and rehabilitation stages and for whom attendance 
at such courses would be a part of the individual's rehabilita- 
tion, upon approval of the. hospital commander concerned. 

c. Individual cases as may be approved by an officer of the 
rank of Major General. This authority will not be delegated. 

5. How to make application: Applications will be made direct 
to the Chief of Special Service, Hq, ETOUSA, APO 887. The only 
indorsement required will be from the officer authorised to grant 
required leave or furlough to the applicant, and will state that 
the applicant is elegible for the necessary leave or furlough and 
will be granted same to attend the course. Each applicant will 
state his army serial number in the application. 

6. Successful applicants will be notified by the Chief of Special 
Service, Hq ETOUSA, and will be given specific instructions at 
that time. Persons selected for a course must attend unless 
military necessity prevents. A successful applicant finding him- 
self unable to attend will immediately notify the Chief of Special 
Service, Hq ETOUSA, by telegraph or telephone, (ETOUSA, Ext 
1122). 

7. The fee for each course will be £3 12s for officers and £1 12s 
for enlisted men, and will cover both billets and mess while 
attending the course. 

By command of General EISENHOWER: 
RICHARD P. PISK, 
Lt. Colonel, A.GO, 
Assistant Adjutant General. 



Headquarters 
European Theater of Operations 
United* States Army 
AG 350.03-MGC 17 March 1943 

SUBJECT: Foreign Language Study. 
TO: The Commanding Generals: 
Eighth Air Force ' 
'SOS, ETOUSA 
V Corps 

Iceland Base Command 

1. Authority is granted for selected officers and NCO's in this 
theater to study foreign languages at government expense. The 
purpose of such instruction will not be for the cultural training 
of any individual, but designed to increase his value to the mili- 
tary service. To this end, free instructon will be granted only to 
those individuals who, in the performance of duty will have 
occasion to use it. 

145 



2. (Instruction will be on a voluntary basis and subject to the 
following conditions: 

a. Due to time factors, instruction will be limited to individ- 
uals with some knowledge of the language. Beginners will not 
be considered, except in special cases. 

b. In general, instruction to enlisted men is not encouraged, 
except for intelligence personnel and combat crews of planes,. 

c. Classes or individual instruction must 'be at times- which 
do not interfere with normal duties. Individual instruction (by 
tutors, who must be fully qualified) will only be authorized for 
specially selected officers. The cost for tutors, for indivdual 
instruction, will not exceed (8) shillings per hour. 

d. Requests for instruction must be approved by division, base 
section, or equivalent commanders. 

e. For security reasons, instructors must be engaged from 
an approved list, prepared by G-2 of respective commands. 

/. In the interest of economy, if the number of applicants 
warrant, commanders should give consideration to hiring in T 
structors on a full-time basis, or making use of local educational 
facilities. That is, instructors should be paid a salary rather 
than by the hour or by the lesson. 

3. Applications should contain the following data: 

a. 'Language to be studied. 

b. Type of instruction desired, i.e., private tutor or group 
class. 

c. Previous instruction (in same language). 

d. A statement of the position held by applicant and of what 
benefit may be expected to the government. 

4. The Special Service Section of your headquarters should 
be charged with the supervision and conduct of language training. 
That section should secure lists of suitable instructors, arrange 
classes, handle details of payment for lessons and prepare monthly 
reports of proficiency on all individuals, lit should also be re- 
sponsible for deciding when proficiency reaches the point when 
classes and instruction to individuals^ is to be discontinued. 

5. Upon completion of a course of instruction, a report of pro- 
ficency attained will be obtained from the instructor by the 
Special Service Officer, who will forward it to the G-2 and G-3 of 
respective commands for notation, after which it will be placed 
in the 201 file of the individual. 

6. Funds to cover cost of foreign language study are properly 
chargeable to Supplies and Transportation, 1942-3. Procurement 
authority FD G-A5 P541-07 A 0502-23. 

:j: * * * 

By command of Lieutenant General ANDREWS: 

s/Richard P. Fisk, 

Major, AGD, 
Assistant Adjutant General 



146 



COPY 

Headquarters 
Services of Supply 
European Theater of Operations 

APO 871 

AG 350.02 (25 Jun 1943) PGA 25 Jun 1943 

Subject: Advanced Study of Foreign Languages. 

To: Base Section Commanders, SOS, ETO 

Headquarters Commandant, SOS, ETO 

The following procedures are announced for the SOS with 
respect to the procurement of instructors and the administration 
of the advanced study of foreign languages in accordance with 
the provisions of such letter : (Letter HQ, ETOUSA, 17 Mar. 
1943, AG 350, 03-MGC). 

a. Procurement of Instructors. (1) Your respective Special 
Service Officers, in co-operation with the unit commanders 
and the local Special Service Officers, will obtain the names 
of all available instructors in your respective commands, 
together with any necessary information regarding their 
ability, character and general desirability, and submit a 
recommended list of such names, with supporting data, to 
this headquarters for approval. " 

(2) The Chief, Training and Security Division, this head- 
quarters, will cause any necessary additional investigations 
to be made, following which the names of the approved 
instructors will be furnished to you by this headquarters. 

(3) Each of you will, in turn, make available to the 
unit commanders and the local Special Service officers the 
names of the instructors approved by this headquarter?. 

b. Applications for Instruction, (1) Applications for instruction 
made by individuals under the jurisdiction of a Base Section 
Commander will be submitted, through channels, to such 
Base Section Commander for approval. 

(2) Applications for instruction made by individuals under 
the jurisdiction of the Headquarters Commandant will be 
submitted, through channels, to this headquarters for 
approval. ^ 

c. Supervision. Your respective Special Service Officers, 
under the supervision of the Chief of Special Service, this 
headquarters, will be charged . with the supervision and 
conduct of language training within your respective com- 
mands. Each such officer will secure lists of suitable 
instructors, arrange classes, handle the details of payment 
for lessons and prepare the reports called for by sub- 
paragraph d. below. Each such officer will also be 
responsible for deciding when proficiency reaches the point 
at which classes and instruction to individuals are to be 
discontinued. 



147 



cl. Reports. Your respective Special Service Officers will each 
submit a monthly, consolidated report direct to the Chief of 
Special Service, this headquarters, containing an alphabetical 
list of all military personnel receiving instruction in 
accordance herewith, with appropriate indication, as to each, 

* of his branch of service, organization or unit, proficiency 
rating in the language being studied (Unsatisfactory, 
Satisfactory, Very Satisfactory, Excellent, Superior, 
Unknown), and type of instruction (class or tutor). 

By command of Major General LEE: 

/s/ PETER PETERS, 
Major, A.G.D. 
Assistant Adjutant General. 



Headquarters 
Services of Supply 
European Theater of Operations 

APO 871 

AG 353.8 MGA 25 Jul 1943 

SUBJECT: USO Camp Shows. 
To: Base Section Commanders, SOS, ETO. 
Headquarters Commandant, SOS, ETO. 

1. Present in 'the Theater and operating in coordination with 
the. Chief of Special Service, this headquarters, are USO Camp 
Shows, theatrical units available for performances at installations. 
These shows are allotted to base sections for definite periods of 
time, based upon the availability of shows and the requirements of 
the base section concerned. Other than in exceptional circum- 
stances, booking will be so arranged that a USO show will be 
presented at each camp, post, station or activity once each two 
weeks. 

2: Base Section Special Service Officers are charged with the 
responsibility of schedul;ng appearances, . providing adequate 
transportation- facilities, and arranging for meals, billets, and the 
other administrative and technical details for each show 'troupe. 
Located, within each base section are USO Field Supervisors. 
These individuals are provided with appropriate US Army creden- 
tials, and : are available for the primary purpose of aiding local 
Special Service Officers in all matters of necessary coordination. 

3. Past experience has revealed the existence of problems and 
peculiar requirements that will be solved only by the tact, under- 
standing, and consideration of the various Special Service Officers: 
a) The artists traveling in the troupes are civilians,. British 
and American, and are guests of the US Army and of the base 
section concerned. They expect to face hardships and inconveni- 



148 



ences, and are willing to accept with a smile any condition that 
cannot be avoided. However, it is the responsibility of the Special 
Service Officer concerned to extend to them every effort and 
consideration in ah attempt to make available such comforts and 
conveniences as will convey to the artists a genuine reaction that 
their efforts and contributions are appreciated. 

b) Upon receiving notification of the assignment of a unit, 
Base Section Special Service Officers will make reservations for 
billets immediately. Points of billeting will be so selected that 
units will normally remain at a billet for a week at a time, and 
at the same time be within approximately forty miles of the- 
stations and activities where 'the troupes are playing. Special 
Service Officers will personally inspect the billets for cleanliness, 
conveniences, and desirability before the arrival of the artists. 

c) In the matter of the arrangement of meals, consider- 
able planning may be necessary in order that the meal schedule 
may be coordinated with the individual requirements of the 
artists. In many instances, performers, particularly dancers, 
cannot eat a heavy meal prior to the performance, and upon their 
request, light meals will be provided prior to the show, and a full 
dinner arranged for after the performance. 

d) Normally, at each point of showing, complete separate 
dressing rooms will be provided for male and female artists. Heat 
in the dressing rooms may be necessary, and hot water, is required 
for the removal of makeup. 

e) The military personnel accompanying the troupes are 
an integral part of the show, and will normally be billeted with 
the unit itself. 

4. a) Upon receiving notification of the assignment of a unit, 
Base Section Commanders Wxll immediately prepare a detailed 
routing schedule showing the posts, camps, and stations at' which 
shows will be given. Two performances may be scheduled in one 
day if warranted by the size of the contemplated audience. An 
afternoon showing will not be scheduled on the first day of the 
arrival of 'the unit within the base section, or if the unit has 
traveled one hundred miles or more during the day. . 

. b) Copies of the detailed routing schedule will be for- 
warded promptly direct to the Chief of Special Service, APO 887. 
Ii forwarding such schedule, the following information will be 
provided: — ' ' 

(1) Time and place of each showing. 

(2) Name, address, and telephone number of billets. 

(3) Distance to points of showing from billet. 

(4) The equipment available, including stage facilities. 

(5) Complete details regarding guides. 

c) Prior to arrival of the Unit, the Chief of Special Service, 
SOS, will advise Base Section Commanders of any special instruc- 
tions or unusual arrangements other than those contained herein. 
Local Special Service Officers are authorized to communicate 



149 



directly with the Special Service Section, 'SOS, APO 887, Telephone 
— - ETOUSA, Ext. 2150 or 2004 for special information and instruc- 
tions regarding USO Camp Shows. . • 

6. Upon completion of each perf ormance, the local commanding 
officer will be requested by the officer in charge of the troupe to 
make a report as to the success of the engagement. Form for 
such report is forwarded as an inclosure hereto. A supply of 
these forms will be carried by the officer in charge of the show, 
and may be obtained upon request from the Chief of Special Ser- 
vice, A1PO 887. This report will be secured from the local 
commander by the officer in charge of the show, prepared in 
duplicate, and both copies forwarded direct to the Chief of Special 
Service, SOS. ' 

By command of Major General Lee: 
1 Unci: Form — USO Camp Shows Report. 
Infor. cc to: CG, V Corps, OG VIII AF. 

/$/ JEFFERSON E. KIDO, 
Lt. Colonel, AGD, 
Assistant Adjutant General. 



War Department 
The Adjutant General's Office 
Washington 

AG.413.56 

(3-17-42) MO-M. March 18, 1942. 

SUBJECT: Overseas Motion Picture Service, U.S. Army. 
To : Commanding General, Army Ground Forces, 

Commanding General, Army Air Forces, 
Commanding Generals, All Armies, 
Army Corps, Divisions, Corps Areas, 
Ports of Embarkation, 
Chiefs of Supply Arms and Services and 
Divisions of the War Department General Staff. 

1. An Overseas Motion Picture Service, US. Army, financed 
by appropriated funds, operating directly under the Chief of The 
Special Services Branch, has been organized and is operated for 
the purpose of furnishing free amusement and recreation through 
the medium of 16mm motion pictures for the enlisted men and 
other members of Task, Overseas Expeditionary ' Forces and Base 
Commands not now receiving 35mm service, 

2. Motion pictures currently produced and distributed by all 
American film companies are being made available by the 
American Motion Picture Industry without cost to the War 
Department for 16mm exhibition to these forces prior to and 
simultaneous with the theatrical release of the picture in 35mm 
form in the United States. This is the first time that all commer- 
cial distributors have "ever agreed to reduce current feature 
pictures and short! subjects to 16mm form. This arrangement 
is premised on an arrangement with the motion© picture dis- 



150 



tributors that the programs will be exhibited only to persons in 
uniform in Overseas Theaters of Operations; that they will not 
be shown in the United States; that they will be exhibited only 
under the auspices of the United States; that they will not be 
loaned to the Armed Forces of other nations; and that' any prints 
thus made available will ultimately be returned to the distributors 
by the Overseas Motion Picture Service, US Army. 

3. Since film programs are copyrighted, any use thereof which 
is contrary t'o the terms- of the license granted the War Depart- 
ment would constitute an illegal act and would tend to imperil 
the interests of commercial concerns in the countries in which 
our Armed Forces are stationed. 

By order of the Secretary of War: 

7s/ J. A. ULIO 

Major General, 
The Adjutant' General. 



WAR DEPARTMENT, 
Washington — November 9, 1943. 

IV — War Information Films. 

1. The Special Service Division, Services of Supply, is pro- 
ducing a series of films designed to acquaint personnel of the 
Army with the background of the present war, the history of the 
war to date, the current progress of the war, and information 
on our allies and enemies. 

2. The first' seven films are tentatively titled as follows: 

a. Prelude to War 

b. The Nazis Strike 

c. Divide and Conquer 

d. The Battle of Britain 

e. The Battle of Russia 

f. The Battle of China 

g. The War Comes to America 

3. a. The -films will be distributed by the Special Service 
Division and will be shipped to commanding officers of posts, 
camps, stations, and overseas units. 

b. Shipping instructions will be furnished with each film 
and will be strictly complied with. 

4. In the interests of economy of critical materials, a limited 
number of prints have been made. This will require that a 
maximum of 4 days be allowed for showings of each film. 

5. All films will be shown to all military personnel. 
(A.G. 413.56 (11-6-42).) 

By order of the Secretary of War: 

G. C. MARSHALL, 

Chief of Staff. 

OFFICIAL: 
J. A. ULIO, 
Major General, 
The Adjutant' General. 
24 18141. 

151 



Maintenance and Operation of Motor Vehicles AG 451/2 Pub GC, 
24 Jan, 1944, Hq ETOUSA. Section XXXVIII Motor Transporta- 
tion for Recreational Purposes. 

1. Major subordinate commanders of ETOUSA are a authorized 
to prescribe such regulations governing the use of their respective 
motor equipment for transporting military and civilian personnel 
for recreational (athletic and entertainment) purposes as they 
may deem necessary or appropriate to promote the health, safety 
and welfare of the forces under their respective commands. 

2. Two copies of regulations issued, and any subsequent 
amendments thereto, will be forwarded to this headquarters. 

3. Uniformed male members of the Allied Forces may be 'given 
a "lift" in the interests of good will, provided the vehicle does 
not deviate from its prescribed course, or as provided in Par 1 
above. v 



Headquarters 
Services of Supply 
European Theater of Operations 

APO 871 

AG 350. (15 Nov ili94'3)0VLAG 15 NOV 1943 

SUBJECT: ETO Branch of the United States Armed Forces 
Institute (USAFI). 

To: See Distribution. 

1. REFERENCE par. 1, AIR SSO-Sl'O'O, 30 Jul 1943, a Branch of the 
United States Armed Forces Institute (USAFI) is established in 
this Theater, effective 10 Nov 1943. lit is to be known as the ETO 
Branch USAFI. Headquarters are at APO 871; Telephone, 
Thackeray 8286, 

2. PURPOSE: lit is 'the purpose of the ETO Branch USAFI to 
facilitate individual correspondence study and group instruction, 
and to provide self -teaching materials for military personnel in 
subjects of value to the Armed Forces. 

a) A total of sixty -four (64) courses are now offered by 
the ETO Branch USAFI. These will be completely processed in 
this Theater, eliminating the transmission of lesson papers and 
materials to and from the United S'tates. Additional courses will 
be available in a few months, at which time appropriate announce- 
ment will be made. 

b) A total of six-hundred (600) courses are offered by 
colleges and universities of the United Sta'tes through the ETO 
Branch USAFI, but require correspondence with and transmission 
of lesson papers to the respective institutions. 

3. ELIGIBILITY: Officers and enlisted personnel, both men 
and women, of the Army, Navy, and Marines are eligible for 
correspondence courses and self-'teaching materials through the 
ETO Branch USAFI. 



152 



4. APPLICATIONS: Procedure in making application for 
correspondence , courses and self -teaching materials are as 
follows: — ' 

a) Applications from enlisted personnel must bear the 
approval of unit commanders in the space provided on the back 
of application forms. 

fa) Applications from officers must bear the approval of 
the immediate superior commanding officer in 'the space provided 
on ' the back of the forms. 

c) To facilitate processing of applications, the forms must 
be filled out completely on both sides. 

d) On apprpval of unit commanders (for EM) as 
indicated in par. 4a. above, and immediate superior commanding 
officers (for OFF), as indicated in par. 4b above, applications 
will be mailed directly to the Commandant, ETO Branch USAFI, 
Hq, SOS, APO 871. 

e) Direct communication between officers and enlisted 
men and the Commandant of the ETO Branch USAFI is authorized 
for questions pertaining to 'the educational services of the Branch, 
for the processing of lesson papers and the handling of instruc- 
tional materials, and for information about courses and other 
activities of the Institute. The Commandant should be addressed 
as indicated in par. 4d above. 

5. FEES: United States money orders, made payable to the 
Treasurer of the United States, must accompany applications for 
correspondence courses and self -teaching materials as follows: — 

a) Enlisted personnel are entitled to the educational ser- 
vices of the ETO Branch USAFI upon the payment of. a 
registration fee of two dollars ($2.00). After the payment of the 
initial registration fee of two dollars ($2.00), no additional fees will 
be required for subsequent correspondence courses or self -teaching 
materials so long as satisfactory progress is maintained or serious 
intent is evidenced. 

b) Authorization of fees for officers has not yet been 
announced by the War Department. Information may be obtained 
by written or telephoned communication with the Commandant, 
ETO Branch USAFI, as soon as available. 

6. APPLICATION FORMS, CATALOGS, AND POSTERS: 
Application forms, catalogs, and posters will be obtained by 
Special Service and Education Officers on direct request to the 
Commandant, ETO BRANCH USAFI, APO 871. 

7. PUBLICITY: Commanding Officers are directed to publicize 
the establishment of 'the ETO Branch of the USAFII by distribution 
of this letter, application blanks, catalogs, and posters to each 
unit in their commands. 

For the Commanding General: - 

FRED A. MEYER, 

OOL. AGD. 
Actg. Adj. Gen. 



153 



COPY 



Headquarters 
European Theater of Operations 
j United States Army 

AG 353 Per — GA 9 Nov 1,943 

SUBJECT; Voluntary Clerical Training. 

TO: Commanding General, SOS, ETOUSA, APO 887. 
Commanding General, First U.S. Army. 

Commanding General, U.S. Army Air Forces in United 
Kingdom. 

1. Major subordinate commanders are authorized to organize, 
with the assistance of their Special Service Officers, voluntary 
programs of 'Clerical training during off-duty hours for all military 
personnel. The subjects to be covered will be:— Typewriting, 
bookkeeping, shorthand, filing, military correspondence, and such 
ether allied subjects as immediate facilities will permit. 

2. Civilian instructors may be employed to teach the various 
subjects. Employment of civilians will be in conformity with the 
provisions of letter, this headquarters, file AG 311:5 MGB, dated 
2 February il943, subject: "British Security Reports." 

3. Funds to cover cost of instruction are properly chargeable 
to Supplies and Transportation, PA 91-5 P 401-07 A 212/40502. 

4. Students attending such courses ■of instruction will be rated 
as follows: — Excellent, very satisfactory, satisfactory or unsatis- 
factory. 

5. Periodic reports will be submitted to CG, SOS, ETOUSA, as 
to the number of students, by proficiency rating, attending courses 
of instruction. 

6. Proficiency ratings will be entered on individual qualification 
cards <AGO Form No. 66-1 or 20) inasmuch as certificates will not 
be issued. 

7. Special Service officers of authorized commands may com- 
municate with the Chief of Special Service, SOS, ETO, APO 887, 
for advice in conducting this program. 

By command of Lieutenant General DEVE'RS: 

/&/ A. W. Palin, Jr., 
A. W. PALIN, JiR., 

IMajor, AGD, 
Asst. Adj. General 



154 



Headquarters 
Services of Supply 
European Theater of Operations 
United States Army 
Special Service Division 

APO 887 
1 Dec 1943 

MEMORANDUM: Voluntary Clerical Training. 
TO: All Special Service and Education Officers. 

I. REFERENCE: 

1, (Reference is made to letter AG 353 Per-GA dated 9 Nov 
1943, Subject: "Voluntary Clerical Training" in which major sub- 
ordinate commanders are authorized to organize, with the assist- 
ance of their Special Service 'Officers, , voluntary programs of 
clerical training during off-duty hours for all military personnel 
in typewriting, bookkeeping, shorthand, filing, military corres- 
pondence, and such other allied subjects as immediate facilities 
will permit. 

II. PROCUREMENT OF INSTRUCTORS: 
1. Military Instructors: 

a. Whenever possible, instructors should be obtained from 
military personnel. Special Service Officers should study "WD 
AGO Form (No. 20 (Soldier's Qualification Card) and WD AGO 
Form No. 66-1 (Officer's Qualification Card) in order to appraise 
qualifications of officers and enlisted men qualified to teach 
these subjects. 

2 Civilian Institutions and Instructors: 

a. Consideration should 'be given to contractual arrangements 
with British educational institutions equipped and qualified to 
offer instruction in these subjects. 

b. Special Service Officers should consult Regional Committee 
Secretaries of the Central Advisory Council for Adult Educa- 
tion in BLM. Forces (C.A.C.) for information regarding civilian 
institutions and names of, individuals qualified to teach these 
subjects: An agreement has been made by the Chief of Special 

~ Service with the Britishr'War Office that all procurement of ser- 
vices of f civilian instructors and lecturers for the Education 
program for the US Army in ETO will be made through the 
■Regional Committee Secretaries of the IC.A.C. (See paragraph 
VI below for list of names, addresses, and telephone numbers 
of these (Regional Committee Secretaries). 

c. The following ruling has been approved by Deputy Chief, 
Training and Security Division, Hq SOS, APO 887: 

(1) "Any lecturer, instructor, or educational institution 
participating in the US Army Education Program in 'ETO 
not having access to confidential information and having been 
approved by a (Regional Committee Secretary of the Central 
Advisory Council for Adult Education in HjM. Forces will not 
need to be further investigated nor referred to the Chief of 
Training and Security Hq SOS APO 871." 



155 



d. In order to aid Special Service Officers in the case cited 
in sub-paragraph II 2 c (1) above, the following channels should 
be observed: 

(1) If, in any case, it is either necessary or advisable to 
further investigate a civilian lecturer, instructor, or educa- , 
tional institution that has been approved by a Regional Com- 
mittee Secretary, such name or names should be submitted 
from your headquarters direct to Chief, Training and Security 
Division Hq SOS APO 871, for approval. Such communica- 
tions will be marked "Confidential." 

e. The above procedure of securing services of civilian lec- 
turers, instructors, and educational institutions applies alike to 
SOS, Field Forces, and US Army Air Forces in the United 
Kingdom. 

III. QUALIFICATION OF SHORTHAND INSTRUCTORS: 

1. In view of the general use' of the Gregg System of Short- 
hand in the United States and the fact that the textbooks available 
to the US Army are for this system, it is recommended that 
instructors and institutions qualified to teach the Gregg System 
be selected. 

IV. PAYMENT OF CIVILIAN INSTITUTIONS AND 

INSTRUCTORS: 

1. The cost of instruction in these subjects will not exceed 
eight (8) shillings per hour of instruction regardless of the size 
of classes. This rate of payment applies alike to educational in- 
stitutions and individual instructors. No additional compensation 
is authorized for use of equipment of institutions or expenses 
incurred by" individual instructors. 

2. The following procedure will be followed by Special Service 
Officers in the submission of bills of educational institutions and 
individual instructors for payment: 

* a. Bills of educational institutions or individual instructors 
will be submitted in triplicate to the appropriate Special Ser- 
vice Officer bearing the following certification of the institution 
or instructor: - 

"I certify that the above is true and just and payment 
therefor has not been received." 

(Signature) John C. Doe 

(Typed or written in Capitals) . JOHN C. DOE 

(Name of organization Central Advisory Council 

written or typed) ...... Regional Committee. . 

The appropriate Special Service Officer will certify as follows:, 
"I certify that the above services have been satisfactorily 
rendered and that payment therefor has not been made by 
US Forces." ' 

- (Signature) John C. Smith 

' • (Typed or written in capitals) JOHN C. SMITH 
(Grade and branch; of service) Captain Infantry 

(Title) Special Service Officer 

(Unit or organization) 31st Division 



156 



b. The bill of the- educational institution or individual in- 
structor after the above certifications have been completed, will 
be forwarded in triplicate to: Supply and Fiscal Officer, Special 
Service Division, Hq SOS, APO 887 for payment. 

V. TEACHING SUGGESTIONS: 

1. Inasmuch as classes will be conducted with immediate facili- 
ties available, it is suggested that Special Service Officers investi- 
gate possibilities of pooling typewriters available in a "given 
section or headquarters during off-duty time. For example: On 
approval of the Commanding Officer, typewriters may be as- 
sembled into one central office or room for instructional purposes 
in the evening and then returned at the end of the instructional 
period. Each member of the class should be assigned a type- 
writer and made responsible for bringing this typewriter to the 
class and returning it to~ its proper place when the, class is 
dismissed. 

2. In the case of typewriting classes, instructors should attempt 
to obtain tables that are from 28 to 30 inches in height. The 
ordinary collapsible field table is very suitable. 

3. Typewriting instructors should be required to teach students 
not only care of the machine but also a workable knowledge of 
machine parts. ^ 

VI. REGIONAL SECRETARIES: 

1. Following is a list of Regional Committee Secretaries of the 
Centra! Advisory Council for Adult Education H.M. Forces listed 
according to areas covered by each: . 



Aberdeen 



J. A. DAWSON, /Esq., C.I.E., C.S.I. 

Forestry Dept., University of Aberdeen, 

Old Aberdeen, Scotland. 

Telephone: Aberdeen 8269 

S. HERBERT, Esq., M.A., J.P.. 

1 Marine Terrace, Aberystwyth, Wales. 

Telephone: Aberystwyth 346 & 347. 

Mrs. B. M. WILE, B.A. 

University College of North Wales, Bangor, 

Wales. Telephone: Bangor 85. 

A. J AULA WAY, Esq., M.A. 

The Queen's University, Belfast, Ireland. 
Telephone: Belfast 21821 " 

B. C. HAMES, Esq., M.A. 

3 Great Charles Street, Birmingham 3, 
England. 

Telephone: Birmingham Central 8510. 
W E. SALT, Esq., M.A., B.COM. 
The. University, Bristol 8, England. 
Telephone: Bristol 24997. 
G. F. HICKSON, Esq., M.A. 
Stuart House, Cambridge, England. 
Telephone: Cambridge 56275. " 
Miss H. K HAYES. 

University College, Cathays Park, Cardiff, 
Wales. Telephone: Cardiff 4447. 



Aberystwyth 



Bangor 



Belfast 



Birmingham 



Bristol 



Cambridge 



Cardiff 



157 



Edinburgh 
Exeter 

Glasgow 

Hull 

Leeds 

Liverpool 

London 

Manchester 
Newcastle-on-Tyne 
Nottingham . 
Oxford and Reading 

St. Andrew 
Sheffield 
Southampton 
Swansea 



- EDWARD BLADES, Esq., M.A., B.Sc. 
1 Lockharton 'Crescent, Edinburgh .11, 
Scotland. Telephone: Edinburgh 61072. 
C. H. ROBERTS, Esq., M.A. 
Extra-IMural • Dept., University College of 
the South-West, Exeter, England. 
Telephone: (Exeter 4141. 
R. iG. McDOWAELL, Esq., CLE., ICS. 
The University, Glasgow, W.2., Scotland. 
Telephone:— Glasgow Western 2604. 

G. E. T. MAY1EIELD, (Esq., B.A. 
University College, Hull, England. 
Telephone: Hull 7753. 

W. R. GRIST, Esq., B.Sc. 

The University, Leeds 2, England. 

Telephone: Leeds 20251.- 

ALAN McPHEE, Esq., M.A., B.COM., Ph.D. 
22 Abercromby Square, Liverpool 7, 
England. Telephone: Liverpool Royal 1258. 

A. CLOW FORD, Esq., M.B.E., B.A. 
London School of Hygiene and Tropical 
Medicine, 'Keppel Street, London, W.C.l. 
Telephone: London Museum 3041. 

R. D. WALLER, Esq., M.A. 

The University, Manchester 13, England. 

Telephone: Manchester Ardwick 2681. 

B. W. ABRAHART, Esq., W.E.A. Office, 
51 Grainger Street, Newcastle-onTyne, 
England. Telephone: Newcastle 21605. 

H. L. FEATHERSTONE, Esq., M.A. 
14 Shakespeare Street, Nottingham, 
England. Telephone: Nottingham .2024. 
L. K. HINiDMARSIH, Esq,, M.A. 
Rewley House, Oxford (also Dr. E. S. 
Budden, The University, Reading"), 
England. Telephone: Oxford and Reading 
Oxford 2524. 

NEIL S. SNOD GRASS, Esq., 'M.A. 

The University, St. Andrews, Scotland. 

Telephone: St. Andrews 872. 

G. P. JONES, Esq., M.A., (LITT.D. 

The University, Sheffield 10, England. 

Telephone: Sheffield 21144. 

J. PARKER, Esq., M.A. 

University College, Southampton, England. 

Telephone: Southampton 74071. 

EDWIN DREW, Esq. 

University College, Singleton Park, 

Swansea, Wales. 

Telephone: Swansea 5059. 



158 



VII. APPLICATION AND ATTENDANCE: 

1. In view of the fact that enrollment in these classes is volun- 
tary and must necessarily be limited to accommodations and 
equipment available, the following recommendations are made: 

a. Recommend that military personnel wishing to take Courses 
make formal application for such course (enlisted men to unit 
commanders and officers to .their immediate commanding 
officer) . 

b. Recommend that applications referred to in sub-paragraph 
VII 1 a above contain the following information: 

(il) Subject to be studied; 
*(2) (Previous instruction in same subject; and 
(.3) A statement of the present assignment of the applicant 
and what benefit may be expected to the Army. 

c. (Recommend that attendance in all classes be made com- 
pulsory after such classes have been organized, except in case 

of military necessity. 

VIII. TRANSPORTATION OF MILITARY PERSONNEL FOR 

OFF-DUTY EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES: 

1. Reference is made to paragraph 4, Section II, 'Circular 
Number 55, Hq SOS ETOUSA, 25 Sept 1943, which .states: Gov- 
ernment motor transportation will not be used for recreational 
purposes where the round trip distance is less than five miles or 
more than fifty miles . . . ." Subject to the approval of Com- 
manding Officers, this circular is interpreted to apply to off-duty 
education activities. 

IX. EQUIPMENT: 

1. This program is limited to the immediate facilities available. 
Commanding Officers are not authorized to requisition additional 
typewriters and other equipment for this program. 

X. TEXTBOOKS: 

1. The fallowing textbooks are now available and should be 
requisitioned directly from Commandant, ETO Branch USAF!, 
Hq SOS APO 87.1: 

a. 652.1 " Fundamentals of Typewriting " (A self-teaching 

course)- by: Lessenberry. 

b. 657.2 " Bookkeeping and Accounting, Fundamental 

Principles" by: Carlson, Prickett, and Forkner. 

c. 653.1 " Gregg Shorthand Textbook " (A self -teaching course) 

by: Gregg, J. R. 
653.2 "Gregg Shorthand Workbook" (A self-teaching course) 
by: Gregg, J. R. 

(Special Service Officers should requisition equal quan- 
tities of these two books as they are to be used 
together). 

d. 355.1 "Military Correspondence" 

by: Adjutant General's School. 



159 



2. Special Service Officers will requisition textbooks by code 
number and title as indicated above. Requisitions will bear the 
following certification signed by the. Special Service Officer: 
"These textbooks are to be used for off-duty group instruction." 

3. Textbooks used for group instruction will be provided free. 

a. It should be noted, however, that individuals who desire 
recognition and recording of their accomplishment for future 
school, college, or vocational employment purposes must enroll 
in the ETO Branch of the USAFI. 

b. Enrollment in the ETO Branch of the USAFI entitles 
registrants to both correspondence courses and self -teaching 
materials as long as evidence is given of satisfactory progress 
and serious purpose. 

c. All military personnel enrolled in the ETO Branch of the 
USAFI may apply for "End of course" examinations. These 
examinations may be administered by an officer to a group or 
taken individually under the supervision of an officer. 

d. Enrollment in the USAFI, in the case of enlisted men is 
made by an initial enrollment fee of two dollars. The fee for 
officers will be announced at a later date. This fee is payable 
only once and no additional fee is required as long as satis- 
factory progress is maintained. EACH REGISTRANT MUST 
PAY THE ENROLLMENT FEE BY A SEPARATE UNITED 
POSTAL MONEY ORDER IN FAVOR OF THE TREASURER 
OF THE UNITED STATES. This money order must be sent 
direct to Commandant, ETO Branch USAFI, Hq SOS APO 871. 

XI. REPORTS: 

1. Special Service Officers will submit monthly consolidated 
reports to CG. SOS, ETOUSA (Attention; Chief of Special Service) 
containing a list of names of students by proficiency rating 
(superior, excellent, very satisfactory, satisfactory, or unsatis- 
factory) attending courses of instruction. 

2. At the completion or discontinuance of a given course of 
instruction, a report of proficiency covering the entire course will 
be submitted to the Personnel Adjutant, or other officer con- 
cerned, on each individual receiving instruction in these subjects, 
to be placed on the individual's qualification card (AGO Form 
No. 66-1 or 20). 

XII. Special Service Officers may communicate directly with 
the Education Officers of this Headquarters for advice in con- 
ducting this program. 

FOR THE CHIEF OF SPECIAL SERVICE: 

EDWARD G. HUEY 

'Major, Infantry 
Executive Officer 



160 



Headquarters 
Services op Supply 
European Theater of Operations 
United States Army 
Special Service Division 

MEMORANDUM TO: All Special Service Officers and Education 
Officers Concerned 

SUBJECT: Services and .Facilities Available to U.S. 

Military Personnel through the Regional 
Committee Secretaries of the Central 
Advisory Council for Adult Education in 
H.M. Forces, and The British Council. 

1. The Central Advisory Council for Adult Education in H,M. 
Forces: 

1. By agreement between the Chief of Special Service and the 
British War Office procurement of British civilians as lecturers or 
instructors will be made through the twenty-three (23) Regional 
Secretaries of the Central Advisory Council (CAC) for Adult 
Education in H.M. Forces. A list of the twenty-three Regional 
Committee Secretaries with their address and telephone numbers 
is given in par 5 below. 

2. It is suggested that Special Service Officers and" Education 
Officers make, early contact with the appropriate. Regional Com- 
mittee Secretaries in order to develop plans for co-operative 
efforts. It is suggested that the following steps be taken as soon 
as practicable: 

a. Many of the topics presented in ARMY TAUKS may be pro- 
fitably followed up by lectures given by individuals regularly 
serving H.M. Forces as part-time or full-time lecturers. 

b. Assistance in obtaining instructors for languages and other 
subjects may be obtained through the appropriate Regional 
Committee Secretaries. 

3. Request for the services of British civilians as lecturers or 
instructors should be made by Special Service Officers to the 
appropriate Regional Committee Secretaries. 

a. By authority of a Memorandum from the Recorder to the 
General Purchasing Board to the Chief of Special Service, 20 
November 1942, entitled "Special Service Procurement" the 
Supply and Fiscal Officer, SSD, Hq SOS, ETO, is authorized to 
procure the services of lecturers without regard to limitations 
imposed' by Theater Circular No. 54, dated 4 Oct 1942, or other 
directives or instructions limiting the amount which may be 
expended without reference to higher authority. 

6. By agreement with the British War Office an honorarium of 
one guinea plus expenses incurred in travel has been set as the 
amount to be paid for each individual lecture. 



161 



c. Civilian lecturers may submit bills, for a series of lectures 
in .any amount approved by the appropriate Special Service 
Officer. 

d. Bills for lectures will be submitted in triplicate bearing the 
following certifications: 

(1) By the Lecturer: (To appropriate Special Service 
Officer) 

"I certify that the above is true and just and payment 
therefor has not been received." 

(Signature) John C. Doe 

(Typed or hand-written in capital letters) JOHN C. DOE 
(Name of institution or organization) 

(2) By appropriate Special Service Officer: (To Supply and 
Fiscal Officer, SSD, Hq. SOS ETO APO 887). 

"I certify that the above services have been satisfactorily 
nendered." 

(Signature) - ' John C. Smith 

(Typed or hand- written in capital letters) JOHN C. SMITH 
(Grade and branch or service) Cap t. Inf. 

(Title) Special Service O. 

(Unit or organization) 31st Division 

4. For information of Special Service Officers a copy of instruc- 
tions issued to Regional Committee Secretaries by the Secretary of 
the Central Advisory Council for Adult Education in H.M. Forces, 
is attached. 

5. Following is list of names, addresses and telephone numbers 
of Regional Committee Secretaries: 

(See memorandum Hq. SOS, 1 Dec 1943, subject: Voluntary Clerical 

training). 

II. The British Council ; 

1. The following quotation from Whitaker's Almanack, 1943, 
indicates the nature and functions of the British Council: 

a, "The British Council was established 7m November 1934, at 
the instance of the Foreign Office supported by a number of 
other Government Departments, and as a result of representations 
made to His Majesty's Government over a period of years by the 
British Diplomatic and other Missions to foreign countries — 
The Council exists for the purpose of promoting wider know- 
ledge of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern 
Ireland and the English language abroad and of developing 
closer cultural relations between the United Kingdom and other 
countries for the purpose of benefitting the British Common- 
wealth of Nations . . ." 

b. "Apart from its work overseas, the" Council administers in 
Great Britain a grant voted' by Parliament towards the cultural 



162 



educational, and recreational welfare of allied national and other 
visitors to the United Kingdom. In co-operation with the 
Admiralty, War Office and Air Ministry, it performs a number 
of functions on behalf of the Allied Armed Forces in this country. 
Facilities are also provided "for United States, Dominion, India 
and Colonial personnel." 

2. Following is a list of facilities made available to U.S. Forces 
by the British Council: 

a. Films: Special^ arrangements are already in effect whereby 
certain British ' Council Films including newsreels are regularly 
supplied to Special Service Division Headquarters. The. British 

Council's Films Department can provide films portraying various 
aspects of the British Way of Life. A detailed list of the type 
of films available may be obtained from the Regional Officers 
of the Council. Requisitions for British Council Films must be 
made through channels to Entertainment Branch, SSD 1 , Hq. SOS, 
ETO, APO 887, U;S. Army. : 

b. Literature: 

(1) The Council, at the request of the Ministry of Infor- 
mation, is preparing Informative Pamphlets for areas which 
U.S. Forces will v^sit when on leave or furlough. These 
pamphlets are brief, pocket-size guides to places to eat, drink, 
sleep, visit, etc. They will be distributed as published by SSD, 
Hq. SOS, ETO, to SSOs and Directors of ARC Clubs. Criti- 
cisms of these pamphlets are solicited by the British Council, 
fori guidance in the preparation of subsequent pamphlets. 

(2) Books on British Institutions and on the localities in 
which units are stationed and technical books in connection 
with specific professions can be supplied', on requisition to 
Regional Officers. 

(3) Professional periodicals — i.e., journals dealing with 
technical (subjects as architecture, engineering, and agriculture, 
etc., and journals in allied languages, published in the United 
Kingdom, can also be supplied. Regional Officers will supply 
necessary application forms on request. 

c. Lectures: 

(1) Request f on British civilian lecturers will in every 
case be referred in the first instance by British Council 
Regional Officers to Regional Committee Secretaries of the 
Central Advisory Council for Adult Education in H.M. Forces, 

but by agreement with these committees the Council, can 
itself occasionally arrange a series of special lectures on 
request. 

(2) The Council can advise on the provision of lecturers 
by other Allies. 

(3) The Council has available a series of lecture notes on 
different aspects of British Life, which would enable U.S. 
Officers to give lectures. In some cases, illustrations of their 
notes are available for use with an epidiascope. 

d. Professional Contacts: 

(1) The Council has available information and' advice 



163 



enabling officers and other ranks to meet British, members of 
similar civic professions and trades. The Council is also in 
touch with all learned professional and technical societies in 
the United Kingdom and has been promised full assistance by 
these societies in this field. 

e. Technical Visits: 

(1) The Council can from time to time arrange technical 
visits to farms, factories, and other institutions of professional 
interest in areas in which troops are stationed. 

f. Music: 

(1) The Council has been officially authorized to make 
arrangements with C.E.M.A. (Council for the Encouargement 
of Music and the Arts) for groups of musicians to tour U.S. 
units on requisition of Special Service Officers, for the purpose 
of giving concerts of classical music and other entertainment 
of high quality, e.g., drama, intimate opera and ballet. 

g. Courses at British Universities for U.S. Military Personnel 
on Leave or Furlough: 

(1) The. Council is collaborating with the Universities of 
Oxford*, Cambridge and other British Universities in the hold- 
ing of short courses for officers and men of the Dominion, 
U.S. and Allied (European) Forces in this country when on 
leave on furlough. The Council is ready to assist in promoting 
similar courses on the same terms at other centers of learning. 

(2) The Council would consider the award of scholarships 
for work in Universities and Technical Institutions in the 
United Kingdom, either of a post-graduate or under-graduate 
nature, to officeus and men of the U.S. Forces temporarily re- 
leased from their units on grounds of ill-health or disablement. 

h. National Houses: ~ ' ' 

(l).In London and Edinburgh the Council, in collaboration 
with the various Allied Governments, has created a number of 
National Houses, at some of which, particularly in London, 
special functions have already been arranged for members of 
the U.S. Forces descended from former nationals of the 
countries concerned. These include: Belgium, Czechoslovakia, 
Greece, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, and Yugoslavia. 
The degree of hospitality which each house is able to offer to 
U.S. Forces varies according to the accommodation at its dis- 
posal, but Council officers will be glad' to answer any further 
enquiries under this head. 
I. Anglo-American Relations. 

(1) The Council attaches equal importance to enabling 
British subjects to understand the institutions and life of those 
from overseas as to providing facilities for such visitors t'o com- 
prenend Britain's view of life. With this object in view the 
Council has arranged a number of art exhibitions representative 
of the work of Allied nations, and would be prepared, if desired, 
to arrange an exhibition of work of serving members of U.S. 
Forces. The Council has also assisted in the presentation of 



164 



joint concerts of Allied and British music and joint forums where 
speeches on the respective ways of life of the various countries 
concerned have been delivered. 

3. Special Service Officers should become acquainted with the 
British Council Regional Officers serving their " respective areas 
and become fully informed of facilities made available to U.S. 
Forces: A list of these Regional Officers and the counties they 
serve is given in paragraph 5 below. 

4. It is desired that the appropriate British Council Regional 
Officer be invited to attend conferences of Special Service Officers 
for the purpose of explaining ways in which the Council can 
assist tLS. Forces. 

5. Following is a list of the British Council Regional Officers 
in the United Kingdom and the counties served by each: 

a. Miss N. Parkinson, Director, Home Division, The British 
Council, 3, Hanover Street, London, W.l. Tel. MAYfair 
8484. 

b. Mr. A. B. Steel, The British Council, 3, Hanover Street, 
London, W.l. Tel: MAYfair 8484. London, Middlesex, 
Kent, Surrey, Sussex, Essexi, Suffolk, Norfolk, Cambridge, 
Huntingdon Bedford, Hertford, Buckingham. 

c. Mr. H. Harvey Wood, The British Council, 57, Melville 
Street, Edinburgh 3. Tel: EDInburgh 33961. Scotland. 

d. Mr. H. J. Kelly, The British Council, 11, York Road, 
Harrogate, Yorks. Tel: HARrogate 2089. Cumberland, 
Northumberland, Westmoreland, Durham, Yorkshire, 
Merioneth, Lancashire, Cheshire, Flint, Denbigh, Caer- 
narvon, Anglesea, Isle of Man. 

e. Mr. E. W. Burbridge, The British Council, The University, 
5, Great Charles St., Birmingham. Tel: CENtral 3630.. 
Lincoln, Nottingham, Derby, Leicester, Northampton, 
Rutland, Warwick, Worcester, Shropshire, Hereford, 
Oxford, Stafford, Montgomery, Radnor, Brecknock, 
Cardigan. 

f . Mr. C. H. Wilmot, 70, The Close, Salisbury, Wiltshire, 
Tel: SALisbury 4601. Gloucester, Berks, Hampshire, 
Devon, Wiltshire, Somerset, Dorset, Cornwall, Monmouth, 
Glamorgan, Carmarthen, Pembroke, Northern Ireland. 

6. The British Council Regional Officers have assistants in 
various towns, but it is requested that Special Service Officers 
make their first contacts with the Regional Officer concerned. 

7. The services of the British Council are without charge to 
the U.S. Forces, 

FOR THE CHIEF OF SPECIAL SERVICE 

/s/ Edward G. Huey 
HI EDWARD G. HUEY 
■Major Inf 
Executive Officer. 

1— Inci: . < 

1 — Copy of instructions issued to Regional 
Committee Secretaries. 



165 



INCLOSURE 



COPY 



INSTRUCTIONS TO' REGIONAL COMMITTEE SECRETARIES 
SERVICE OF AMERICAN FORCES BY REGIONAL COMMITTEES 
- 22 Nov 1943 

1. General Information. 

The Civilian, educational resources and facilities of the Central 
Advisory Council for Adult Education in. H.M. Forces through its 
twenty-three Regional Committees (one in each University or 
University College Area), are entirely at the disposal of the 
American Forces. . 

In the American Army Special Service Officers are responsible 
for educational activities in units. All requests for educational 
services, lecturers, etc., are- made through Special Service Officers 
(called S.S.O'.'s). These officers are members of the staff of the 
Commanding Officer of all American Units down to sepanate 
battalions. 

American Army Headquarters do not allow publication of Troop 
Locations. In order that liaison may be readily established between 
Regional Committees and U.S. Army S.S.O.'s the Chief Education 
Officer of the U.S. Army, Special Service Division, is having in- 
serted in an early issue of the American Army Talks Pamphlet, a 
complete list of Regional Committees, togethen with the following 
paragraph: — • 

"It is suggested to Commanding 'Officers and Special Service 
Officers that many of the. topics presented in Army Talks may 
profitably be f ollowed up by lectures. The resources of the Central 
Advisory Council for Adult Education in H.M. Forces through its 
•23 Regional Committees are available on requisition of Special 
Service Officers. By agreement between the Chief of Special 
Service and the British War Office, all procurement of British 
civilians as lecturers or instructors will be made through the 
Regional Committee Secretary, in your area: It is also suggested 
that Special Service Officers should make early contact with the 
Regional C.o mm fttee Secretary. Special Service Officers may, if 
dtesired, be co-opted by Regional Committees as Observer 
Members^" 

2. Procedure. 

(a) British * Civilian Lecturers for American Troops: 
If an officer from the Special Services Section makes a request 
to the Regional Committee Secretary in his area for a talk or a 
series of talks on any particular subject, the Secretary will do his 
utmost to provide what is wanted. If he cannot meet the request 
through his own resources he knows how he can supplement these 
from elsewhere. Any lecturer who is approached direct by 
individual American Officers or O.Rs should point out that arrange- 
ments are normally made through the S.S.O. and the Regional 
Committee Secretary. He should give the enquirer the R.C. 
Secretary's address and ask him to pass this on to the S.S.O. 



166 



NOTE: It should be remembered that the educational facilities 
in the American Army are not yet fully established, and therefore 
many small units and individual members of the American Forces 
may not know of this procedure. 

PAYMENT of Lecturers Serving the U.S. Forces. 

By agreement with the British Authorities an honorarium of one 
guinea plus expenses incurred in travel has been set as the amount 
to be paid for each individual lecture. Civilian lecturers may 
submit bills for a series of lectures in any amount approved by 
the Special Service Officer of the organization or unit of the U.S. 
Army. Bill for lectures will be submitted in triplicate to the 
appropriate Special Service Officer of the U.S. Army bearing the 
following certification of the lecturen: 

"I certify that the above is true and just and payment therefor 
has not been received." 

(Signature) John C. Doe. 

(Typed or written in Capitals) JOHN C. DOE 

Name of Organization written or typed) Central Advisory 
. Council Regional Committee. 

The appropriate Special Service Officer will certify as follows: 
'I certify that the .above services have been satisfactorily 
rendered." 

(Signature) John C. Smith 

*■ (Typed! or written in Capitals) JOHN C. SMITH 

(Grade and Branch of Service) Capt. Inf. 

(Title) Special Service Officer 

(Unit or organization) 31st Division. 

2. (b) American Uniformed Speakers for British Forces. 

When a uniformed American speaker is asked for by a British 
Unit, through the British Command Liaison Officer, the procedure 
is as follows: — All uniformed speakers are supplied by the 
Speakers Department of the Public Relation Section, Headquarters 
European Theateri of Operations,, United States Army: Postal 
Address, A.P.O. 887: Telephone No: London, Regent 8484 Ex. 863. 

The main purpose of these uniformed speakers is to further 
Anglo-American relations. 

NOTE:-. When meetings are arranged for American Army 
Speakers, accommodation should' always be booked by the Office 
organizing the meeting, The American Army pay the bills and 
travelling expenses. No question of a fee arises. 

(•c) British Speakers for American Red Cross. 
Red Cross Clubs inside Army Areas are often used for lectures, 
-etc: all arrangements should be made through the Special Service 
Officer or the Officer in charge of the Unit. The American Army 
is responsible for- payment. If Red Cross Clubs outside Army 
areas wish for lecturers, they make their own ' arrangements 



167 



through the Director of the Red Cross Club and are responsible 
for payment. 

3. British Council and Ministry of Information Speakers. 

The British Council send out speakers on the life and culture 
of Britain, strictly non-political. Such subjects as 'the progress of 
the war' etc, are left to the M.O.I. The British Council pay ex- 
penses and fee when, responsible for a speaker. The Ministry of 
Information supply special speakers on American affairs for 
civilian audiences. Sometimes distinguished visitors are available 
during thein stay in this country for lectures other than those 
arranged by M.O.I. The Ministry of Inf ormation, however, do not 
issue a list of speakers, but Regional Committees which maintain 
close contact with the M.O.I. Liaison Officer in their areas can be 
informed of speakers who become available, for lectures to the 
British Forces. .Speakers for whom arrangements are made by 
Regional Committee Secretaries go as Central Advisory Council 
speakers in the ordinary way and not as M.O.I. 



COPY 
Restricted 
Headquarters RPF/GHS/jef 
European Theater of Operations 
United States Army 

APO"887 

AG 352/2 OpGA 30 Apr 1944 

SUBJECT : Education in Military and Current Affairs. 
TO: Commanding Generals, 
First US Army Group 
US Strategic Air Forces in Europe 
Each Army, ETOUSA 
European Wing, Air Transport Command 
Base Section Commanders, SOS, ETOUSA 
Commanding Officers, 
24th Army Airways Communications Squadron 
Military Intelligence Service, ETOUSA 
Commandant, American School Center 
Headquarters Commandant, ETOUSA, APO 887 & 871 

1. Letter, this headquarters, dated 29 August 1943, file 
AG 353 MGC, subject as above, and letter, Headquarters, SOS, 
ETOUSA, dated 30 August 1943, file AG 353 (6 August 43) MAG. 
subject as above, are rescinded. 

2. Reference is made to Sec II, Cir No 242, War Department 
1943 ; Sec II, Cir No 261, War Department 1943 ; Sec I, Cir No 
300, War Department 1943 ; and Sec VII, Cir No 29, War Depart- 
ment 1944, with regard to the subjects of the program for 
orientation and education. * 



168 



3. It is desired, that, consistent with operational requirements, 
group discussions, through the medium ARMY TALKS (except 
as provided by par 7 below) be held in all units within this 
command, using one " hour of training time each week. These 
discussions will be the weekly hour of Army orientation required 
by Cir No 300, War Department 1943. The purposes of these 
discussions are to instill in all military personnel : 

a. Confidence in the command. 

b. Pride in service and a sense of personal participation. 

c. Knowledge of the causes and progress of the war. 

d. A better understanding of our Allies. 

"e. An interest in current events and their relation to the 
war and the establishment of the peace. 

4. To further these ends, unit commanders will conduct an 
orientation program designed to develop these aims, using not 
less than one hour of training time a week. Such discussions will 
be led by company officers or by selected competent NCO's. The 
proper presentation of this material is a command function. A 
company officer will be present at each discussion, whether or not 
he is the discussion leader. Discussion groups should not be 
larger than a platoon or analogous unit. 30-50 men. 

5. The Chief of Special Service, this headquarters, is responsible 
for three features of this program : 

a. The preparation and diitribution of a weekly discussion 

leader's guide, ARMY TALKS. 

b. The training of officers and NCO's as leaders. 

c. The conducting of field conferences to aid in the 

inauguration and administration of the program. 

6. The discussion leader's guide, ARMY TALKS, as an aid in 
leading discussions, is published and distributed weekly on the 
basis of three to a company. 

7. Commanders are permitted discretion in the use of any issue 
of ARMY TALKS, when it is evident that some other topic would 
be more timely for a unit discussion group. 

8. Upon request, local conferences will be conducted by trained 
staff members of the Education Branch, Special Service Division, 
this headquarters, as an aid in the organization and administration 
of this program and in the training of leaders 

9. Direct communication with the Chief of Special Service, this 
headquarters, is authorised in conducting this program. 

10. To make the program more effective, it is desired Orientation 
Officers (in this theater known as Education Officers) be appointed 
in compliance with letter, this headquarters, dated A October 1943, 
file AG 320.5 MGS, subject : Special Service Officers, and letter, 
this headquarters, dated 31 October 1943, file AG 320.3M, same 
subject 

By command of General EISENHOWER : 

/s/ R. B. Lovett, 
/t/ R. B. LOVETT, 

Brig. General, USA, 
Adjutant General. 

169 



RESTRICTED 
Civ 34 Hq ETOUSA 28 Mar 1944 

LEAVES, FURLOUGHS, AND PASSES 

1. Cir 99, 21 Dec 1943; Sec V, Cir 10, 31 Jan 1944; and Sec III, 
Cir 26, 12. IMar 1944, are rescinded. 

2. AUTHORITY. The provisions of AR 605-115 and AR 615- 
27i5, as supplemented hereby, will govern the granting of leaves, 
furloughs, and passes in this theater. 

3. BY WHOM GRANTED. The CG's, U.S. Strategic Air 
Forces in Europe, American Component, AEAF; First US Army 
Group; each army; each separate corps; and European Wing, Air 
Transport Command; the Base Section Commanders, SOS, 
ETOUSA; the commanding officer, 24th Army Airways Communica- 
tion Squadron; the Headquarters Commandant, ETOUSA; and such 
other -commanders as may be subsequently specifically designated, 
are authorized to grant leaves, furloughs, and passes, and may 
delegate such authority to their subordinate commanders. 

4. STANDARD PASS FORMS, (a) Permanent Pass (Class B). 
This pass will be used to authorize travel only to those com- 
munities which are frequently visited by the enlisted men of a 
post, camp or station during off-duty hours, lit does not authorize 
absence for more than twelve consecutive hours or between 0100 
hours and 0600 hours on any day. The form will be substantially 
as shown in Appendix 1 hereto. Local reproduction of the form 
is - authorized. 

(b) Overnight or up to 48 consecutive hours. TPM Form 3 
(revised), as shown in Appendix 2, is the only form of pass which 
will authorize absence between 0100 and ©600 hours on any day or 
up to 48 consecutive hours. Until present stocks are exhausted, 
the old TPM Form 3 will be used in lieu of TPM Form 3 (revised). 
Particular attention is directed to the cancellation provision in- 
corporated in the pass. Whenever TPM Form 3 (revised) is 
cancelled by an officer or by military police for misconduct, a 
report of delinquency (TPM Form 2) will be prepared and 
immediately forwarded directly to the commanding" officer of the 
soldier involved. 

5. LIMITATIONS, (a). Leaves and furloughs will not exceed 
10 days. 

(b) Leaves and furloughs will not be granted to personnel 
to return to 'the U.S. 

(c) Passes will not be granted in excess of 48 hours. 

(d) Personnel will not ,be granted leaves, furloughs, or 
passes unless: 

(1) They have received an orientation course covering British 
customs and standards of living, the absence of the color line in 
the UK, and security precautions; 

(2) They have sufficient funds in their possession to defray 
anticipated expenses; and 



170 



(3) They have received a necessary minimum of instruction 
in military courtesy. 

(e) 'Military personnel on leave, furlough, or pass may not 
enter the restric'te areas listed in Sec I, Cir 80 Hq ETOUSA, 7 Oct 
1i94j3. Personnel having a close relative residing in one of the 
restricted areas (except Eire) whom they wish to visit while on 
leave or 'furlough, may submit an application for permission so 
to do to this headquarters with a statement of the circumstances. 

(f) The number of personnel that may be granted leaves, 
furloughs, or passes during a given period is limited to the avail- 
ability of lodgings in the area to be visited. Commanding officers 
will take the necessary steps to acquaint themselves with any 
requirements that may be imposed for the control or restriction 
of men on pass or furlough in that area. Prior to granting leaves, 
furloughs, and passes, unit commanders concerned will insure that 
the requesting personnel have bohafide invitations or confirmed 
reservations for lodginqg. Such requests will specify the lodging 
secured. 

(1) . Enlisted -personnel. Lodging for enlisted personnel is pro- 
vided in American Red 'Cross Service Clubs. This headquarteris 
will apportion the available lodgings to the commanders listed in 
Par. 3 above. Furloughs and passes granted in accordance with 
the above will specify the Red Cross Service Club and the effective 
date of the furlough or pass. (Lodgings will be valid only at the 
service >club in the city specified. Personnel will register a't the 
Red Cross Service Club prior to 2200 hours on the day the reserva- 
tion is effective. - 

(2) Officers. Red Cross Service Clubs for officers have not been 
established in all areas. This headquarters will apportion to the 
commanders listed in Par. 3 above the current available lodgings 
for officers. The Billeting Officer, CBS, SOS, ETOUSA, APO 887 
(REGent mm, Ext 11') will render assistance to officers desiring to 
make reservations. A similar service for officers visiting other areas 
will be performed by the Red Cross Club in the particular area 
to be visited. 

(g) Leaves, furloughs, or passes involving rail or bus travel 
on Saturdays or Sundays will not be grafted. This prohibition 
will be construed not to apply to informal leaves or passes involv- 
ing travel to nearby cities or towns or to personnel authorized to 
attend educational courses of British universities while on a leave 
or furlough status. When travel by rail or water is involved in 
any leave, furlough, or pass, twenty-four hours' notice will be 
given to the nearest RTO. 

(h) The use of leave trains is authorized for special occa- 
sions, and arrangements therefor should be made through the CG, 
SOS, ETOUSA. Responsible commanders will insure adequate 
military police supervision for leave trains. 

(i) Gas masks will- be carried to the place of leave, fur- 
lough, or pass, but need not be worn on the person after arrival. 



171 



(j) The carrying of weapons of any kind, including straight 
razors and knives, other than small pocket knives (three inch 
blade or less), on leave, furlough, or pass is prohibited. 

(k) (Personnel on leave, furlough, or pass will have in their 
possession: 

(1) Either leave or furlough orders, furlough certificates, or 
standard passes. 

(2) Individual pay record card (WD, AGO Form 28). 

(3) WD identification card or yellow identification card (Cjr 
78, 26 Sep 11943), as amended. 

(4) Identification tags. 

The above enumerated forms and identification tags will be 
shown upon request to officers and military or civil police. (Leave 
or furlough orders, and furlough certificates or passes will be 
shown to ABC representatives when securing billets. 

6. BREACHES OF MILITARY DISCIPLINE. Breaches of 
military discipline which warrant disciplinary action will lead to 
the immediate arrest and trial of the offender at the place where 
the offense is committed, or to the immediate return of such per- 
son to his organization, where disciplinary action will be taken. 
Officers in charge of military police units will indorse the leave 
order or furlough certificate of an offender who is being returned, 
to his organization for disciplinary action with a note to the effect 
that the leave or furlough has been cancelled for breach of 
discipline and is valid only for the period necessary to permit 
immediate return to the unit. In the case of passes, officers and 
non-commissioned officers in charge of detachments of military 
police, or any officer, will cancel the pass of an offender who is 
being returned to his organization for disciplinary action, recording 
thereon the reason for, and the time of, cancellation, iln addition, 
they will prepare and forward the delinquency report (TPM Form 
2) called for in Par. 4 above. The cancelled pass will be given to 
the offender and is valid only for 'the period necessary to permit 
immediate return to his unit, at which time the cancelled pass will 
be turned over by the offender to his unit commander. 

7. ICELAND BASE COMMAND. The foregoing is not 
applicable to the Iceland Base Command. The CG, Iceland Base 

"Command, will forward 'to this headquarters requests for personnel 
of his command to visit the British Isles. While visiting the British 
Isles, personnel of the Iceland Base Command are subject to the 
provisions of this circular. (AG 210.711x220.7ill OVEPGA) 
By command of General EISENHOWER: 

JAMES H. STRATTON, 
OFFICIAL.: Colonel, G9C, Acting Deputy Chief of Staff, 

/s/ R. B. iLovett 
R. B. LOVETT, 

Brigadier General, USA, DISTRIBUTION: F 

Adjutant General. 

APPENDIX 1 and 2, Sample (Pass Forms omitted. 



172 



COPY. 

Restricted 
Headquarters 
Services of Supply 
European Theater op Operations 

APO 887 

AG 080 010 Jan 1944) PGA 10 Jan 1944 

SUBJECT : Allocation of Beds in American Red Cross Clubs 
TO: Base .Section Commanders, SOS, ETOUSA 
Headquarters Commandant, SOS, ETOUSA 
1. Letters, this headquarters, 10 Sep 1942, file AG 220.711, Misc, 
subject: "[Leaves, Furloughs, and Passes," and 3 Jul 1943, file 
AG 080 MGA, subject: "Allocation of Beds in American Red Cross 
Clubs" are rescinded. . 

2. Attention is invited to paragraph 5/, Circular No. 99, Hq 
ETOUSA, 21 Dec 1943, whereby this headquarters is charged with 
the responsibility of apportioning among the various commands 
of the theater available leave, furlough, and pass accommodations 
for officer and enlisted personnel.. 

3. Under the direction of this headquarters, the allotment of 
such accommodations will be made by the respective Base Section 
Commanders, who, except the Commanding General, Central Base 
Section, are authorized further to decentralize such function to 
subordinate commanders located in the immediate vicinity of the 
Red Cross Club concerned. 

4. In the allotment of beds and accommodation, the following 
principles will be observed: 

a. Central Base Section. 

01) [Except for personnel stationed in Northern Ireland, the 
Commanding General, Central Base Section, will allot to the 
Commanding Generals of the Air Forces, who will sub-allot to 
Air Force units (other than units stationed in Northern Ire- 
land), and to Base Section Commanders, who' will sub-allot to 
SOS and Field Force units (other than units stationed in Nor- 
thern Ireland). 

(2) Because of the water travel involved, for all military 
personnel stationed in Northern Ireland the Commanding 
General, Central Base Section, will allot to the Commanding 
General, Northern Ireland Base Section, who will sub-allot to 
Air Force, SOS, and Field Force units. 

■(3) All such allotments will be made by the Commanding 
General, Central Base Section, upon a strength basis, and will 
be readjusted by him from time to time as may be necessary. 

b. Other than Central Base Section. 

(,1) No effort will be made to establish a general policy 
whereby the allotment is based on any flat ratio of strength or 
percentages, but beds will be allotted to the various units, 
organizations, and activities upon the basis of the particular 



173 



situation prevailing with respect to each club, having due regard 
to the accessability of the club to units in the immediate vicinity 
and the probability of furlough visitors from other areas due 
to points of special interest in the locality. 

(2) Close liaison will be maintained with the regional Red 
Cross directors and the local directors of each of the Red Cross 
Clubs. 

(3) If accommodations are available, individuals from units 
or organizations not having a specific advance allotment of beds 
will be permitted to use the sleeping facilities of a club without 
previous reservations, provided informal advance arrangements 
have been made by the unit commander concerned with the 
local director of the club. 

5. The use of sleeping facilities of American Red Cross Clubs 
by personnel for whom a previous allotment (or advance arrange- 
ments as provided in sub-paragraph (3), above) has not been 
made will be considered a breach of military discipline for which 
action as provided by paragraph 6, Circular No 99, Hq ETOUSA, 
2,1 Dec 1,943, is authorized. 

By command of Major General LEE: 

/s/ Fred A. Meyer, (PP) 
FRED' A. MEYER, 
Colonel, AGD, 
Adjutant General 

Restricted 
Headquarters 
Services op Supply 
European Theater of Operations 

APO 887 

AG 353.8 (10 Sep 1943)PGA 10 Sep 1943 

SUBJECT: British Council and C.E.M.A. Artist Programs. 
TO : Commanding General, Eighth Air Force 

Commanding General, V Corps 
Base Section Commanders, SOS, ETO 
Headquarters Commandant, SOS, ETO 
Commanding Officer, European Wing Air Transport 
" Command 

Commanding Officer, 24th Airways Communication 

Squadron v 
Commandant, American School Center 
1. The British Council and the Council for the Encouragement 
of Music and the Arts (C.E.M.A.) have made available to the US 
forces in the UK their artists' programs, the British Council pro- 
viding the honorarium and transportation of the artists, and the 
per diem when necessary. 



174 



2. An organization or installation (other than of the Eighth Air 
Force or V Corps) desiring a C.E.M.A. concert will make request 
to the appropriate Base Section Special Service Officer, stating 
the type of program desired. The Base Section Special Service 
Officer will, in turn, contact the local C.E.M.A. Regional Officer 
or the local British Council Regional Officer. (See Inclosures Nos 
1 and 2.) Arrangements for organizations and installations of the 
Eighth Air Force and V Corps will be made through their respec- 
tive headquarters. If possible, several concerts in the same area 
should be arranged at the same time, for convenience and 
economy's sake. 

3. The organization Or installation for which the concert is ar- 
ranged will make thorough advance preparations, wdth all possible 
publicity. No cancellations should be permitted, unless absolutely 
unavoidable. The artists are to be met by an officer and trans- 
ported locally i to the installations, and light suppers should be 
served to them both before and after the concert. Complete under- 
standing and cooperation of commanding officers and special ser- 
vice officers is of prime importance. 

For the Commanding General: 

C. R. LANDON, 

Colonel, AGD, 
Adjutant General. 

C.E.M.A. 
REGIONAL OFFICERS 

REGION 1— Northumberland, Durham, Yorkshire, (North Riding). 
Miss Helen Munro, 8 St. Mary's Place, Newcastle-on-Tyne (New- 
castle 21843). 

REGION 2— Yorkshire (East and West Riding). 
Mr. Eric Greene, 1 Green Hayes, Savile Park Road, Halifax 
(Halifax 4115). 

REGION 3 — Nottinghamshire, Lincolnshire, Derbyshire, Leicester- 
shire, Rutlandshire, Northamptonshire. 

'Mr. H. D. Fayers, Westminster Bank Chambers, Angel Row, 
Nottingham (Nottingham 42766). 
REGION 4— Cambridgeshire, Essex, Norfolk, Suffolk, Bedfordshire, 
Huntingdonshire, Hertfordshire. 

Mrs. A. Carlisle, C.E.M.A., Merton Hall, Cambridge (Cam- 
bridge 54255). 

REGION 5— LONDON, AND MIDDLESEX. 

(No officer. All communications to C.E.M.A. Headquarters). 

REGION 6— Buckinghamshire, Berkshire, Hampshire, Dorsetshire, 
Oxfordshire. 

Miss Mona Tatnam, 6, Cross Street, Reading (Reading 4104). 



175 



REGION 7 — Gloucestershire, Somersetshire, Cornwall, Devonshire, 
Wiltshire. 

Mr. Cyril Wood, Theatre Royal, King Street, Bristol (Bristol 
24786). 

REGION 8— Wales. 

(No officer. All communications to C.E.M.A. Headquarters). 

REGION 9 — Herefordshire, Worcestershire, Warwickshire, Stafford- 
shire, Shropshire. 

Mr. T. Harrison, 18, Newhall Street, Birmingham (Central 6745). 
REGION 10— Cheshire, Cumberland, Lancashire, Westmorland. 

Miss Eve Kisch, lb, Cooper Street, Manchester 2. 
REGION 11— Scotland. 

Mrs. M. A. Fox, 29, Queen Street, Edinburgh. 
REGION 12— Kent, Surrey, Sussex. 

Miss Alice Lidderdale, 9, Belgrave Square, London S.W. 

(Sloane 0421, Ext 213). 



A. B. STEEL, ESQ., The British Council, 3 Hanover Street, London, 
W.l. (Tel: Mayfair 8484). 

H. J. KELLEY, ESQ., The British Council, 11, York Road, Harro- 
gate, Yorks (Tel: Harrogate 2989). 

H. HARVEY WOOD, ESQ., The British Council, 57 Melville Street, 
Edinburgh, 3 (Tel: Edinburgh 33961-2). 

C. H.~ WILMOT, ESQ., The British Council, 70, The Close, Salis-. 
bury, Wiltshire (Tel: Salisbury 4601) . 

E. W. BURBRIDGE, ESQ., The British Council, The University, 5, 
Great Charles Street, Birmingham (Tel: Central 3630). 
These officers have assistants in various towns, but it is desir- 
able that in the first instance contact should be made with the 

Regional Officers themselves. 



BRITISH COUNCIL 
REGIONAL OFFICERS 



MR. STEEL 



REGIONS COVERED 

London 

Middlesex 

Kent 

Surrey 

Sussex 

Essex 



Hertford 



Cambridge 

Huntingdon 

Bedford 



Buckingham 
Norfolk 



MR. KELLY 



Suffolk 

Cumberland 

Northumberland 

Westmorland 

Durham 

Yorkshire 

Lancashire 



Cheshire 
Flint 



Denbigh 
Caernarvon 



Merioneth 
Anglesey 



Isle of Man 



176 



MR. HARVEY WOOD Scotland 



MR. WILMOT 



MR. BURBRIDGE 



Gloucester 

Berks 

Hampshire 

Wiltshire 

Somerset 

Dorset 

Lincoln 

Nottingham 

Derby 

Leicester 

Northampton 

Rutland 

Stafford 

Warwick 



Devon 

Cornwall 

Monmouth 

Glamorgan 

Carmarthen 

Pembroke 

Northern Ireland 

Worcester 

Shropshire 

Hereford 

Oxford 

Montgomery 

Radnor 

Brecknock 

Cardigan 



RESTRICTED. 

Hq SOS ETOUSA 
Adm Cir No 31 7 Jun 1943 

RATION CARDS IFOR UNITED STATES ARMY PiBRSONNEL 
ON DETACHED SERVICE, LEAVE, FURLOUGH OR 
COMMUTATION OF RATION STATUS. 
1. All personnel of the US Army forces in the UK who are or 
may be in commutation of ration status, or who may depart from 
their normal stations on furlough or leave for a period of 24 
hours or more, and who will desire to purchase items of food 
designated as rationed by the British Ministry of Food, will be 
provided in advance with British Service Ration Cards by their 
respective organization commanders. 

2.. Organization commanders will also provide necessary ration 
cards to US service personnel, not members of their commands, 
who are entitled to such cards and through the exigencies of the 
service are permanently or temporarily on duty or resident in 
their area or vicinity and cannot conveniently obtain ration cards 
from their permanent headquarters. 



9. For various periods of leave or duty between 24 hours and 
28 days ration cards RflBSA and RE12 will be issued as follows: 
Over 24 hours and up to 72 hours. . 1 RB8A 

4—7 days h RB12 

8— .10 days i (RB12 plus 1 HB8A 

11—14 days 1 RB12 

15—17 days 1 IRB12 plus 1 RB8A 

18— 31; days U JRB12 

22—24 days \\ iRB12 plus 1 HB8A 

25—28 days 2 (RB12 



177 



RB12 contains two identical sets of coupons, each set covering 
a period of one week and having spaces for the insertion of the 
holder's name, serial number and unit stamp. The card is so 
designed that it may be cut in half and each half issued to 
different individuals. If the two halves are thus issued separately, 
the serial number in the "A" half should be copied on the "B" 
half before the document is cut. When a complete RB12 is issued 
to one individual, only one of the spaces calling for particulars 
of name, serial number, etc., need be completed. 

* * * * * 

By order of the Theater Commander: 

W. G. .WEAVER, ' 
Brig Gen. GSC 

Chief of Staff. 

OFFICIAL: 

C. R. LAND ON, 

Colonel AGD, 
Adjutant General. 



SYNOPSIS OF LETTER FROM BRITISH MINISTRY OF 
INFORMATION TO REGIONAL INFORMATION OFFICERS 
IN CONNECTION WITH THE ESTABLISHMENT OF 

BRITISH WELCOME CLUBS: 

The British Ministry of Information, in order to meet the need 
in the smaller town and village where no other facility exists, in 
collaboration with the Women's Voluntary Services and other 
voluntary societies, has offered its assistance in the establishment 
of British Welcome Clubs in these vicinities. The modus oper- 
andi will usually be that where a need exists, the Women's 
Voluntary Services or other voluntary society will institute such 
a club by the process of inviting local residents to become 
members, for which a nominal subscription will be appropriated 
in order to confirm the privilege, and that some Americans may 
be invited to visit it and then become members. Thereafter a 
joint committee of management will be elected from among the 
members as soon as they are sufficient. Premises will have to 
be found wherever possible In some cases it may be feasible 
to find or borrow a sufficient room in a private house or church 
hall which could be used every evening. In some cases it may 
be found that accommodation could be found for only two or 
three days a week. It may also be possible to induce local 
authorities to permit the use of British Restaurant premises for ~ 
these purposes. In places where there is no suitable voluntary 
society to undertake this service, recourse may -be taken to 
Information Hospitality Committees. The Ministry of Information 
is prepared to make small grants for the establishment of these 
ciubs. 



178 



Adm. Cir. No. 39 RESTRICTED. - 4 July 1943 

Hq SOS ETOUSA 

Medical Attention for Civilian Employees 1 

Hospitality Gifts II 

Unit Stocks of Quartermaster Supplies \ 111 

II— HOSPITALITY GIFTS: 1. It is desired that military per- 
sonnel accepting invitations to homes shall carry with them 
certain major items of their ration (meat, fats and sweets 
suggested) in order that they may accept such hospitality without' 
the feeling that they are eating food which, on a strict ration 
card basis, has been provided only for the immediate members 
of th,e family visited." 

2. In the case of visits covering period of 48 hours, or less, 
there will be made available to personnel, from unit stocks on 
hand, approximately the amounts of food outlined in the Issue 
Chart set forth in paragraph 4, below. It is difficult to break 
the majority of ration items down into 1 small bulk, and, there- 
fore, the amount issued in any particular case will depend to a 
great extent, on the items and packages available. 

3. Where the visit will be in excess of 24 hours, and rations in 
kind are not made available as set forth in paragraph 2 above, 
the guest will be provided with an appropriate British Service 
^Ration Card which he will give to his host in lieu of such rations 
in kind. Information as to such ration cards is set forth in 
Administrative Circular No. 31, this headquarters, 7 Jun 1943. 
, 4. Issue Chart: 



RATION ITEM 


One 
Meal 


Two 
Meals 


One 
Day 


Two 
Days 


Fruit 










No 2 or 2J can 
Milk, evaporated 


1 


1 


1 


2 










14-J-oz .can . 






4 - 


8 


Sugar, oz 


4 


4 


4 


8 


Vegetables 










No 2 or 2J can 






1 


2 


*Meat, fresh, lbs 


JL 
2 


3 
4 


1 


2 


*In lieu of fresh meat, one 










(1) only, of the following 










items may be issued: 










Bacon, lbs 


4 


i 


3 
4 


li 


Fish, canned 










No 1 can (16-oz) 




1 


1 


2 


Other canned meats 










No 1, No. 1J or No 2 can 






1 ' 


1 



By order of the Theater Commander: 
OFFICIAL: JOHN C. H. LEE 

•C. R. LANDON Major General, U.S.A. 

Colonel, A.G.D., Adjutant General CG, SOS 



179 



RESTRICTED 
Hq EIOUSA 



Cir 86 



30 Oct 1943. 



EXTRACT 



1 — AMERICAN TROOPS AT PUBLIC CEREMONIES. 1. Sec III, 

Cir 75, 16 Sept 1943 is rescinded. 

2. Troops will participate only in those affairs which are 
sponsored by the American or British military, naval, or air 
authorities, except that commanding officers of Army bands may 
arrange locally, with the approval of the appropriate civil 
authority, to give public concerts at which no admission charge is 
made and no recurring regular schedule adopted or advertised. 
Any other use of Army personnel for public display, except in 
London, will have the approval of 'the general officer responsible 
for the security and discipline of the troops in the area in which 
the ceremony is to take place. 

3. (Requests for approval of the appearance of any troops, or 
presentation of public concerts 'by Army bands in London, will be 
made to this headquarters. 

4. The provisions of Pars. 2- and 3 above do not prohibit the 
participation by United States military personnel in athletic events 
under authorized sponsors, unless such participation would inter- 
fere with training or would possibly affect Anglo-American 
relationships. 

5. The national anthems of the United States and Great Britain 
will be played in the following sequence at public ceremonies 
conducted by American troops: 

(a) When ceremonies are held at US Army posts, camps, 
and stations, BTOOSA, the national anthem of the United States 
will be played first, followed by the . national anthem of Great 
Britain. 

(b) When ceremonies are held at places other than those 
stated above, the national anthem of Great Britain will be played 
first, followed by the national anthem of the United States. 



(AG 001 MJOG) 



By command of Lieutenant General DEVERS: 



OFFICIAL: 

RALPH PULSIFER, 
Brigadier General, USA,, 
Adjutant /General 



I. H. EDWARDS, 
Major General, GSC, 
Chief of Staff. 



DISTRIBUTION "B" 



180 



HESTRICTED 



HQ SOS ETOUSA. 
EXTRACT. 



Adm Cir No. 44 17 July, 1943. 

1. CIVILIAN ATTENDANCE AT ENTERTAINMENTS: I. Con- 
cern has , been expressed regarding the increasing number of 
civilians present at performances given under the auspices of 
the Chief of Special Service, SOS, ETOUSA, particularly in the 
case of USO Camp Shows' entertainments. 

2. The entertainments provided by USO Camp Shows include 
many special attractions, such as bands, concert and radio artists, 
and motion picture and theatrical stars. A number of the 
individual entertainers donate their time and talent primarily in 
order that performances may be given before enlisted personnel, 
and the presence of civilians discourages their future participa- 
tion in, and enthusiasm for, the Special Service entertainment 
program. 

3. The following will be observed in connection with USO 
Camp Shows: 

a. Enlisted personnel will be given first priority in seating 
and admission. 

b. Civilians will be admitted only after adequate provision has 
been made for the seating of all military personnel. Civilian 
attendance will be limited to the following: 

(1) Civilian employees of the unit, organisation, station or 
activity; 

(2) In exceptional cases, the local commander may, for the 
purposes of promoting better public relations, admit a very 
limited number of civilians as his personal guests. 

e. The facts surrounding the attendance of civilians will be 
explained in advance to the officer in charge of the troupe. 

4. The attendance of civilians at Special Service motion picture 
shows is prohibited. 

5. No admission charge of any kind will be made for any 
theatrical performance, motion picture show, or USO Camp Show 
presented under Special Service auspices. 

6. Exceptions to the foregoing will be made only with the prior 
approval of this headquarters. 



By Order of the Theater Commander: 
OFFICIAL: s/ JOHN C. H. LEE 

s/ C. R. LANDON, Major General, U.S. A. 

Colonel, A.G.D. C.G. S.O.S. 

Adjutant General. 



~ 181 



RESTRICTED. 
HQ SOS ETOUSA 
EXTRACT. 

* * * - * * 

Adm Cir No. 67 > 15 September 1943 

III— CIVILIAN ATTENDANCE AT ENTERTAINMENTS: 1. 
Paragraph 3, Section 1, Administrative Circular No. 44, this head- 
quarters, 17 July, 1943, is amended by the addition thereto of new 
subparagraphs b (3), b (4), and d, reading, respectively: 

a. "(3) U.S. merchant seamen." 

b. "(4) Wives of members of the US armed forces." 

c. " d. Each Base Section Commander may, in his 
discretion, authorize performances at British war factories in his 
base section.; provided however, that such performances shall 
occupy not more than 20% of the playing time of each troupe in his 
base section. Any such performances which may be so author- 
ized shall be scheduled in the same manner as are performances 
for US Army installations. Assistance in determining the advis- 
ability of authorizing such performances may be obtained by 
consultation with the British ENSA regional supervisors." 

(AG 353.8) 

* * * * * 
For the Commanding General: 

s/ R. W. CRAWFORD, 
Major General, USA, 
Chief of Staff. 

OFFICIAL: 

s/ C. R. LANDON, Major General, U.S.A. 

Colonel, AGD, 

Adjutant General. DISTRIBUTION: G. 

, RESTRICTED 

Cir. 49 * Hq ETOUSA 2nd May, 1944 

I— CONTROL OF VENEREAL DISEASE, 1. Sec II, Cir 17, 19 Feb 
1943, as amended by Sec III, Cir 2, 5 Jan 1944; and Sec II, Cir 19, 
22 Feb. 1943, are rescinded. 

2. ■ The maintenance of the health, morale and efficiency of a 
command is the responsibility of its commander, and the pre- 
vention of venereal infections is a problem of -major military 
importance calling for a high degree of leadership. In the' de- 
velopment 1 of a venereal disease control program, commanding 
officers will avail themselves of the advice of medical officers and 
others of special competence, and will be guided by the precepts 
set forth herein. 

a. The practice of prostitution is contrary to the best 
principle of public health and harmful to the health, morale and 
efficiency of troops. No member of this command will, directly or 
indirectly, condone prostitution, aid in or condone the establish- 
ment or maintenance of brothels, bordellos or similar establish- 



182 



ments, or in any way supervise prostitutes in the practice of their 
profession, or examine them for purposes of licensure or certifi- 
cation. Every member of this" command will use all available 
measures to repress jprostitution in areas in which troops of the 
command are quartered or through which they may pass. 

b. Commanding officers will develop a comprehensive pro- 
gram of venereal disease control. In these activities, emphasis 
will be placed on educational methods, the provision of substi- 
tutive activities and the command control of environment. Dis- 
ciplinary or punitive measures will not be taken upon charges of 
having contracted a venereal disease, of having failed to take 
prophyla tic treatment after sexual intercourse, i or of having thus 
become incapacitated, for duty." However, wilful concealment of 
infection is a punishable offence (Par 23e, AR 40-210, as amended). 
Command control will be exercised for the prevention of venereal 
infections; treatment of the infected will be directed by the 
Medical Department. 

3. Treatment for venereal infections will be given either on a 
full duty status or in regular establishments of the Medical De- 
partment. Treatment on a duty status will involve no change in 
unit assignment, no reduction in grade or rank and, except as 
recommended by the surgeon for strictly medical reasons, no 
alteration in duties. The same disciplinary control will be 
exercised over patients with venereal diseases treated in regular 
establishments of the Medical Department, as for the wounded 
and sick from other conditions in the same or similar institutions. 

4. Instruction of Military "Personnel. All military personnel will 
be fully instructed : 

a. In the prevention of venereal disease, including the use 
of Medical Department Item No. 9N582-00. Prophylactic, 
Mechanical, and Medical Department Item No. 9N580-00, Prophy- 
lactic, Chemical; and , 

b. In the early recognition of venereal disease in their own 
persons. / 

5. Isstie of Prophylactics, a. Medical Department Items Nos 
9N582-00 and 9N580-00 (see Par 4a, above) will be requisitioned 
by unit supply officers from Quartermaster Class 1 depots for 
issue, without charge either to military personnel or to unit funds. 

b. Unit commanders will arrange to provide, without cost, 
such items to military personnel desiring them whenever such per- 
sonnel leave the unit area on duties or on leave during which they 
may be exposed' to venereal infection. 

c. The sale of condoms in post exchanges will be continued. 

By command of General Eisenhower: 

R. B. LORD 

OFFICIAL: Brigadier General, GSC, Deputy Chief of Staff, 

/s/ R. B. Lovett. 
R. B. Lovett, 
Brigadier General, USA, Adjutant General. 



183 



INDEX 

A 

A-2 81 

actor . ....29 

allocation of beds 36, 173 

allotment allowances 36 

of beds 36, 173 

allowances, family 36 

American Forces Network 9, 13 

„ „ ., programs . . . 14 

American Red Cross 51, 53 

beds ., 36, 173 

„ „ '„ British speakers for 167 

Field Director 52 

„ „ „ mission 53 

Anglo-American relations 19, 35 164 

anthems, national 180 

Armed Forces Institute 15, 56, 152 

Army Exchange 49 

Army Motion Picture Service 21 

Army Talks 9, 169 

artist • -. 29 

Ashwood, Lt. A 20 

assignment, job 44,74 

athletics 17, 138 

„ after combat 51 

„ British-American 19 

athletic officer . ... 52, 138, 141 

athletic technican : 40, 50, 133 

attendance, civilian 181 

audience, civilian 181 

B 

band leader 29 

base section SSO ». 69, 70, 148 

Battle of Britain 151 

Battle of China . . 151 

Battle of Russia 151 

beds, ARC 173 

belief in mission . . . . 45, 74 

billiard tables '.. 57, 70 

books 61, 65, 79 

„ British 163 

boredom 5 f 17 

boxing, inter-allied .' 19 

boxing rings [ [ [ 70 

breaches of discipline ! . 172 

British- American athletics 19 

British Council 162, 174 

British newspapers ' 57 

British universities 16, 144 

British Welcome Clubs 36, 127* 178 

" Building Brawn " 20 

bulletin board 82 

Burbridge, E.. W ....................[..... 176 

184 



c 

cabinet maker, 30 

calisthenics ^ 19, 20, 86 

Cambridge 144 

capsule revues 121 

cards 51 

carpenter 30 

C.E.M.A 28, 164, 174 

center staging 120 

Central Advisory Council 156, 160 

ceremonies, public 180 

channels, supply 56 

chaplain 7, 28 

charts 128, 134 

children, passports for < . 36 

church services 28 

cinema 21 

35 mm . : , 23, 109 

16 mm 23, 107, 150 

Branch , 23 

. information films . , 151 

operation 130 

shows, civilians at 181 

Cinemobiles 54 

civilian, attendance at shows 181 

civilian instructors 155, 161, 163 

Class A, B, C, equipment 69 

clerical training . ._. 16, 154 

Clubmobile 53 

Clubs, British Welcome 36, 127, 178 

college registration service 12 

combat, points from 50 

combatives 96 

commander 6, 7, 8, 47, 52 

companies, Special Service 38 

condoms 183 

confidence , 42 

consolation tournament . . /. 103 

cooperation ." 49, 51 

correspondence courses 15, 152 

Council, British • . . . 162, 174 

council, enlisted men's 37 

Council for Adult Education, H.M. Forces 156, 160 

counties served by Regional Officers i 165, 176 

courses, British university 16, 144, 164 

correspondence ,. 15, 152 

Education Officers 16 

foreign language 14, 15, 50, 145, 147 

Orientation Officers 16 

typewriting 156 

voluntary clerical 16, 154 

courts martial .". 51 

Cummings, Capt. M. K. , 122 

current affairs, education in 168 

curtains, stage 113 



185 



D 

dances 79 

dayroom furniture 68, 70 

depot supply officer ,. 69 

discipline 42, 172 

distributing points ... • 56 

Divide and Conquer 151 

Donut Dugouts ■ ... 54 

drapes, theater 113 

duplicating machine 133 

E 

education 15, 137,168 

„ duty-time '. 16 

„ equipment 65 

„ military and current affairs 168 

Education Officers 169 

Education Officers' course 16 

Eisenhower, General 3, 35, 55 

electrician 29 

elimination tournament -18, 102 

English-Speaking Union 127 

enlisted men's council 37 

entertainer ' , .. .. 29 

entertainment director 29 

entertainments, civilians at 181 

equipment .- 44, 62 

„ maintenance of 105, 129 

„ organizational 70 

„ theatrical 68 

esprit de corps 46 

exercises, physical 92 

F 

factories, visits to j 164 

factors, morale 41 

faith in cause 46 

farmers' clubs 36 

fees 

„ instructors' 156 

„ ' lecturers' . .'• 167 

„ USAFI ' ..153 

Field Manual. 101-5 , 135 

field director, ARC 52 

field supervisors, USO 35 

film damage 108 

film editor 29 

film exchange 22, 51 

film gift 22 

film records . . . . , . . 109 

film, 35mm. ; . . 109 

films, British Council 163 

damage to 108 

information 151 

maintenance of 107, 130 

186 



requisitioning of . . 25 

35 mm , .' 109 

food ration cards 36, 177 

foreign languages , 14, 15, 50, 145, 170 

furniture, dayroom 68, 70 

furloughs , . 170 

G 

G-2 81 

G-3 19 

gasmasks on leave 171 

generators 51,105 

gift equipment 70 

gifts, hospitality : 179 

grass exercises 94 

green light stations 52 

group instruction , 15, 83 

guerilla exercises 92 

guides to British towns .J. 163 

H 

halls, rental of 58 

handicaps 104 

Help Wanted Dept , 12 

hobby shops 36 

holder, Newsmap - • ... 71 

homesickness 5 

hospitality 36, 179 

hymns 28 

I 

improvisation . .. 49 

improvising stages : 124 

index, script Ill 

Infantry Journal 20 

information 75, 80, 137 

instructors . 16,154,155 

insurance ...... 51 

inter-allied boxing 19 

interest , 17 

J 

job . . / ••/."' 44, 74 

K 

Kelley, H. J. 176 

kit, A : 60, 70 

A-l : 40 

B 60, 70 

L ;. ... 61 

make-up 40, 68 

music 40 

orientation ; 9 

publication . 41 

knives, on leave 172 

■ • . L . 

ladder tournament ......... 103 



187 



languages, foreign 14, 15, 50, 145, 147 

lawyers' clubs 36 

leadership 7, 48, 72 

leave trains 171 

leaves 170 

lecturers 155, 161, 163, 166 

library books . . 16, 51, 133 

library technician . 133 

lights, spot 119 

lights, stage 115 

linguaphone 65 

literature, British Council 163 

L kits 61 

M 

MacArthur, Gen 5 

magazines, British 57 

technical 163 

u.s : 49 

mail 49 

Mail Call 13 

maintenance 105, 129 

„ motor vehicles 152 

Marshall, Gen. Geo. C 3, 4, 6 

meller dramas 31, 112 

memo, supply 8, 56 

mess 49 I 

Ministry of Information 127, 168 ! 

minstrel shows 31,112 

mission 45, 74 

morale 3, 4, 41, 72, 142 

morale factors ; 41 

morale, program 4, 5 

Morale Services 

American Forces Network 13 

Armed Forces Institute 15 

Chart . 134 

Education 16 

Morale Factors .41 

News , 11 

Orientation ' 8 

Radio 13 

Research 14 

Stars and Stripes ... n 

Yank 11, 13 

USAFI 15 

motor vehicles for recreational use 152 

motion picture director 29 

motion picture industry ^ 22, 24 

movies 21, 50, 52, 79, 150 

movies, civilians at 181 

music 26, 132, 164 

„ classical , 28 

„ equipment , 67, 105 

musical comedies 31, 112 

musicians „ ..... 29 



188 



N 

Napoleon 4 

national anthems 180 

national- houses 164 

Nazis Strike 151 

news 9, 11, 52 

newscenter . . . . . 81, 82 

Newsmaps . 9, 71 

newspapers 57, 135 

Northern Ireland 36 

O 

off-duty education 15, 83 

officers 77 

one act plays 31, 112 

operators 131, 133 

operation of motor vehicles 152 

orchestra leader 29 

Ordnance 105 

organizational equipment 70 

orientation 8, 50, 75, 80, 136, 169 

orientation, center 81, 82 

films 151 

kits 9 

officer .' .' . .' .V .' .' .' .' 8, i36,' 141, 169 

. officers' course » 16 

orphans, war .* 12 

Overseas Motion Picture Service 22, 150 

Oxford 144 

P 

pamphlets on towns 163 

participation 17 

passes 170 

passports, children's . ..~ . . 36 

P. A. systems 41, 105 

payment, instructors 155, 156 

lecturers 167 

periodicals, technical 163 

phonograph records ... 60 

physical training 20, 86 

pianos ; 70 

playlets 31, 112 

Plays 31, 112 

playwright . 29 

post, camp, and station property ; 70 

posters 33 

Prelude to War 151 

pride in outfit 46, 50, 72 

professional magazines 163 

professions and trades, British [.[ 164 

projection equipment 56 107 

projectors 50, 7o| 129 

program, athletic , 18 

morale , 4 5 

physical training 20 



189 



radio 14 

recreation and athletic . 4, 5 

soldier show 30, 110 

Special Services 5 

theatrical 131 

16mm film 24 

property, post, camp, and station 70 

prophylactics 183 

prostitution . 50, 182 

public address system 41, 105 

public ceremonies ........ 180 

public relations man 29 

punishments 78 

purchase 57, 58 

'purchase tax : 58 

Q 

Quartermaster 105 

R 

radio ....11, 52, 60, 82, 105 

„ programs 14* 

- , transmitters 105 

ratio, morale to material 4 

ration cards 36, 177 

ration gifts 179 

reading matter * 51 

recreation ; 139 

recreation and athletic program 4, 138 

recreation officer — 138 

recreational equipment 62, 69 

recreational use of motor vehicles 152 

recorders 105 

records ....... r 60 

Reecap 14, 49 

references 135; 139 

Regional Secretaries ; . 156, 160, 161, 166 

relays 99 

rental of halls 58 

repairman, electrical '. 29 

replacement depots 10, 12 

Research Branch 14 

respect for leaders 73 

rest periods : 52 

revues , 31, 112, 121 

rewards 78 

rigger 30 

round-robin , 18, 101 

running exercises ... 95 

S 

S-2 1 ..9, 10, 81 

S-3 .19 

salvage equipment 69 

satisfaction . 43 

scenery 115 



190 



scheduling 1Q.1 

script, Ill, 1113 

Secretaries, C.A.C., H.M. Forces . ' 156 

self-confidence ' 43 

self-teaching 15,56,62,65 

sets, stage M — 118 

sheet music 27 

shorthand • ••• !55 

showers 50, 53 

shows, soldier • 29, 110 

USO '. 32, 148 

Signal Officer ....105 

Signal Supply 25 

sign painter • • • ■ 29 

singing 27, 50, 79 

soldier shows 29, 110 

song books 51 

song leading , . . . . • • 27 

sound editor 30 

spare parts • • • 106 

Speakers Dept. PRO 167 

speakers, UK -. • 166 

speakers, US • 167 

Special Service • 48, 134 

Special Service Companies 38, 56, 128, 129 

Special Service Division chart 134 

Special Service Officer , 135, 140, 141 

Special Services 

Athletics 17 

Chart • 134 

Cinema , 21 

Music .....26 

Soldier Shows ... 29 

USO Shows ..32 

spot lights 119 

staff doctrines 47 

stages 68, 70, 113, 124 

staging 120 

Stars and Stripes 3, 9, 11, 52 

Steel, A.B. ; 176 

subscriptions 

British newspapers 57 

Stars and Stripes .'. 11 

•supplementary training guide ..129 

supplies 8, 51, 56, 60, 70 

supplies, purchase 57 

■ T 

tables or organization 128, 134, 140 

talent " 131 

tax 58 

technical visits .11. . . . . . . ; 164 

technicians, athletic 40, 50, 133 

music 40, 132 

motion picture 129 

191 



orientation ' 41, 132 

theatrical 1 . . . . 40, 131 

textbooks 15,16,65,158 

theatrical equipment . 68 

theatricals 29, 112, 131 

The Battle of Britain , 151 

The Battle of China 151 

The Battle of Russia 151 

The Nazis Strike 151 

The War Comes to America 151 

tournaments, athletic 18, 101, 103 

training >. 17, 44, 16, 154 

training guide, Sp. Serv. Cos 129 

trains, leave 171 

transmitters 105 

travel, weekend 171 

truck stages 122 

typewriting 156 

U 

universities, British 16, 144 

U.S ; 152 

USAFI 15, 56, 152 

USAMPS 21 

USO Camp Shows .... 32, 148 

USO shows, civilians at 181 

V 

vaudeville . 31, 112 

venereal disease 6,51,182 

voluntary clerical training 16, 154, 155 

W 

war aims 46 

War Comes to America , 151 

War Information Films 151 

war orphans 12 

Warweek 9 

weapons on leave . . ' 172 

Welcome Clubs . 36, 127, 128 

welfare 43, 48, 73, 76 

Wilmot, C. H 176 

Winant, Ambassador 36 

Women's Voluntary Services 127 

Wood, Harvey : 1 76 

writing material 51 

Y 

Yank 3, 9, 11, 13, 52 

Z 

zeal 42 

Zone V 54 



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